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Migration, Population, Urban Appalachians

Primarily studies of out-migration to cities such as Cincinnati, Detroit, Chicago, Akron, and Baltimore, especially post-World War II; treatment of those populations as an underclass. Also in-migration (e.g., Florida retirees) to Appalachia. 

 

For Latino Studies, see: Ethnicity and Race.
For Immigrants, see: Coal, Industry; and Ethnicity and Race

Alexander, J. Trent.  2006.  “Defining the Diaspora: Appalachians in the Great Migration” [poverty rates; maps and charts].  Journal of Interdisciplinary History 37, no. 2: 219-247.

Alexander, J. Trent.  2006.  “Defining the Diaspora: Appalachians in the Great Migration.”  Journal of Interdisciplinary History 37, no. 2 (Autumn): 219-247.  Migration north and to the industrial Midwest, 1940s-1980s; poverty; maps, tables.

Ambinakudige, Shrinidhi, Domenico Parisi, and Steven M. Grice.  2012.  “An Analysis of Differential Migration Patterns in the Black Belt and the New South.  Southeastern Geographer 52, no. 2 (Summer): 146-163.  Maps, figures.  “...the Black Belt is losing population to other Southern destinations...keeping those migrants in the South.” “...changes in migration flow have balkanized the region more than ever.”

Appalachia Counts: The Region in the 2000 Census [10 articles].  2004.  Guest editor, Phillip J. Obermiller.  Introduction by Phillip J. Obermiller and Richard A. Couto.  Special issue, Journal of Appalachian Studies 10, no. 3: 243-420.

Bailey, Rebecca J.  2000.  “I Never Thought of My Life as History: A Story of the ‘Hillbilly’ Exodus and the Price of Assimilation” [Chicago].  In Appalachian Odyssey: Historical Perspectives on the Great Migration, ed. P. Obermiller, T. Wagner, and E. Tucker, 27-37.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger.

Barcus, Holly R., and Stanley D. Brunn.  2009.  “Towards A Typology of Mobility and Place Attachment in Rural America.”  Journal of Appalachian Studies 15, no. 1-2 (Spring-Fall): 26-48.  Eastern Ky. family reunion attendees used as data source.

Baugh, Carol.  2000.  “Think College: Preparing Urban Appalachian Students for Learning in the Twenty-First Century” [Dayton, Ohio].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 6 no. 1-2 (Spring/Fall): 162-171.

Beatty, Karen.  2011.  “Making Our Move” [1957].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 26, no. 2 (Winter): 58-60.  Memoir essay about the author’s unsettling girlhood transition from rural Kentucky to New Jersey.

Berry, Chad.  1996.  “The Great ‘White’ Migration, Alcohol, and the Transplantation of Southern Protestant Churches” [from Ky.].  Register of the Kentucky Historical Society 94 (Summer): 265-296.

Berry, Chad.  2000.  “Southern White Migration to the Midwest, an Overview” [oral histories; tables].  In Appalachian Odyssey: Historical Perspectives on the Great Migration, ed. P. Obermiller, T. Wagner, and E. Tucker, 3-26.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger.

Berry, Chad.  2000.  Southern Migrants, Northern Exiles [Appalachian focus; 1930s-60s].  Urbana: University of Illinois Press.  264 pp.

Berry, Chad.  2010.  “Music, Migration and the Mountain Experience.”  In Motif: Come What May, an Anthology of Writings about Chance, ed. M. Worthington, 105-108.  Louisville, Ky.: Motes Books.  Text of a talk “delivered by the author at the 2009 Mountain Heritage Literary Festival, Lincoln Memorial University, Harrogate, Tennessee.”

Beyer-Sherwood, Teresa.  2006.  “From Farm to Factory: Transitions in Work, Gender, and Leisure at Banning Mill, 1910-1930s” [cotton millhands; Carroll Co., Ga.].  Oral History Review 33, no. 2 (Summer/Fall): 65-94.

Blevins, Brooks.  2006.  “Ozarks.”  In The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture, Vol. 8: Environment, ed. M. Melosi, 260-262.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Borman, Kathryn M., and Patricia Z. Timm.  2009.  “Better Connecting Schools with Urban Appalachian Communities” [Cincinnati].  In Participatory Development in Appalachia: Cultural Identity, Community, and Sustainability, ed. S. Keefe, 157-171.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Borman, Kathryn M., and Phillip J. Obermiller, ed.  1994.  From  Mountain to Metropolis: Appalachian Migrants in American  Cities.  Westport, CT: Greenwood.  226 pp.

Breen, T. H.  1997.  “The Great Wagon Road” [18th century; Pa. to N.C.; Moravians and Scotch Irish]. Southern Cultures 3 (Spring): 22-57.

Brennan, Kathleen M., and Christopher A. Cooper.  2008.  “Rural Mountain Natives, In-Migrants, and the Cultural Divide.”  Social Science Journal 45, no. 2 (June): 279-295.

Brown, Lawrence A., Linda Lobao, and Scott Digiacinto.  1999.  “Economic Restructuring and Migration in an Old Industrial Region” [Ohio Valley; tables, maps].  In Migration and Restructuring in the United States: A Geographic Perspective, ed. K. Pandit and S. Withers, 37-58.  Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield.

Brown, William, and Mary Odem.  2011.  “Living Across Borders: Guatemala Maya Immigrants in the U.S. South” [Cherokee Co., Ga.; online, multi-media essay].  Southern Spaces: An Interdisciplinary Journal about Regions, Places, and Cultures of the American South and Their Global Connections, 16 February 2011.  “...explores Maya migration...through the journeys of two families from Santa Eulalia, Guatemala,” to north Georgia.  www.southernspaces.org/2011/living-across-borders-guatemala-maya-immigrants-us-south.

Cirillo, Marie.  2012.  “Remembering Dixie’s People: An Interview with Marie Cirillo” [Uptown Chicago, 1960s].  By Mark R. Wilson.  Baptist History and Heritage 47, no. 1 (March): 8-17.  References Wayne Flynt’s book, Dixie’s Forgotten People (1979).

Cushing, Brian.  1999.  “Migration and Persistent Poverty in Rural America” [southern W.Va., 1980s; tables].  In Migration and Restructuring in the United States: A Geographic Perspective, ed. K. Pandit and S. Withers, 15-36.  Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield.

deMarrais, Kathleen Bennett.  1998.  “Urban Appalachian Children: An ‘Invisible’ Minority in City Schools.”  In Invisible Children in the Society and Its Schools, ed. S. Books, 89-110.  Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Dublin, Thomas.  1998.  “Working-Class Families Respond to Industrial Decline: Migration from the Pennsylvania Anthracite Region Since 1920.”  International Labor and Working-Class History 54: 40-56

Duncan, Ronald J.  [1971] 2005.  “Living in Urban Milltown.”  In Culture, Ethnicity, and Justice in the South: The Southern Anthropological Society, 1968-1971, 352-359.  Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.  (Reprint, from Proceedings No. 4. The Not So Solid South: Anthropological Studies in a Regional Subculture, ed. J. Morland, 49-55).

Dyer, Joyce.  2003.  Gum-Dipped: A Daughter Remembers Rubber Town [1950s-60s outmigrant company town, Akron; Firestone Tire & Rubber Co.].  Series on Ohio History and Culture.  Akron, Oh.: University of Akron Press.  223 pp.

Dyer, Joyce.  2010.  Goosetown: Reconstructing an Akron Neighborhood [memoir; b. 1947; “reconstructing place and time”].  Ohio History and Culture series.  Akron, Ohio: University of Akron Press.  162 pp.

Feather, Carl E.  1998.  Mountain People in a Flat Land: A Popular History of Appalachian Migration to Northeast Ohio, 1940-1965 [Ashtabula Co.]. Athens: Ohio University Press.  200 pp.

Finley, Frankie.  2009.  “Out Hoboin’ Around” [personal reflection].  Nantahala: A Review of Writing and Photography in Appalachia 4, no. 1 (Summer/Fall): Non-Fiction section, 1541 words.  “We were always moving”: Ohio, Pennsylvania, Kentucky.  http://nantahalareview.org/issue4-1/nonfiction4-1/FINLEY.htm.

Frazier, Kevan D.  1998.  “Outsiders in the Land of the Sky: City Planning and the Transformation of Asheville, North Carolina, 1921-1929.”  Journal of Appalachian Studies 4 (Fall): 299-316.

Guy, Roger.  1997.  “Down Home: Perception and Reality Among Southern White Migrants in Post World War II Chicago.”  Oral History Review 24 (Winter): 35-52.

Guy, Roger.  2000.  “A Common Ground: Urban Adaptation and Appalachian Unity” [Chicago; 1950s-60s; maps, tables].  In Appalachian Odyssey: Historical Perspectives on the Great Migration, ed. P. Obermiller, T. Wagner, and E. Tucker, 49-66.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger.

Guy, Roger.  2000.  “The Media, the Police, and Southern White Migrant Identity in Chicago, 1955-1970.”  Journal of Urban History 26 (March): 329-349.

Guy, Roger.  2007.  From Diversity to Unity: Southern and Appalachian Migrants in Uptown Chicago, 1950-1970.  Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books.  131 pp.  Contents: Introduction: prelude to departure -- Hitting the hillbilly highway: leaving home behind -- Destination Uptown: a rocky evolution -- A common ground: urban adaptation and migrant identity -- Hillbilly jungle and hillbilly heaven: a tale of perceptions -- Unity, community, and the Chicago Southern Center -- Southern unity and social protest in Uptown -- The migrant generation: from unity to invisibility.

Guy, Roger.  2010.  “Of Voices Few and Far between: White Appalachian Women Migrants in Postwar Chicago, 1950–70.”  Oral History Review 37, no. 1 (January): 54-70.  Interviews; maps.

Guy, Roger.  2012.  “Hank Williams Lives in Uptown: Appalachians and the Struggle Against Displacement in Chicago.”  Journal of Appalachian Studies 18, no. 1-2 (Spring-Fall): 131-148.  Maps.  “Hank Williams Village--a multi-purpose housing and commercial development patterned after a southern town,” as an alternative to urban renewal.

Halperin, Rhoda H.  1998.  Practicing Community: Class Culture and Power in an Urban Neighborhood [Cincinnati].  Austin: University of Texas Press.  352 pp.

Halperin, Rhoda H.  2009.  “Urban Development, Imagined Community, and Class Indigeneity in the East End Community Heritage School” [Cincinnati].  In Participatory Development in Appalachia: Cultural Identity, Community, and Sustainability, ed. S. Keefe, 173-186.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Hansel, Pauletta.  1999.  “Where the Personal Is Political: Lessons From an Urban Appalachian Community’s Struggle for Environmental Justice” [Cincinnati’s Lower Price Hill Environmental Leadership Coalition].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 5 (Fall): 263-268.

Hartigan, John, Jr.  1997.  “Green Ghettos and the White Underclass” [Detroit; Briggs neighborhood].  Social Research 64 (Summer): 339-365.

Hartigan, John, Jr.  1997.  “Name Calling: Objectifying ‘Poor Whites’ and ‘White Trash’ in Detroit.”  In White Trash: Race and Class in America, ed. Matt Wray and Annalee Newitz, 41-56.  New York: Routledge.

Hartigan, John, Jr.  2000.  “‘Disgrace to the Race’: Hillbillies and the Color Line in Detroit” [1940s-50s; identity].  In Appalachian Odyssey: Historical Perspectives on the Great Migration, ed. P. Obermiller, T. Wagner, and E. Tucker, 143-158.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger.

Hartigan, John.  1999.  Racial Situations: Class Predicaments of Whiteness in Detroit [Briggs neighborhood; Corktown; Warrendale].  Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.  354 pp.

Hicks Deborah.  2005.  “Class Readings: Story and Discourse among Girls in Working-Poor America” [Cincinnati; pre-teens].  Anthropology & Education Quarterly 36, no. 3 (September): 212-229.

Humphreys, James.  2012.  “Becoming Americans: Social Change in Morgan County, Tennessee, 1850-1870.”  Journal Of East Tennessee History 84: 23-39.  Swiss; Germans; emancipation of slaves.

Johnson, Susan Allyn.  2000.  “How the ‘Rubber City’ Became the ‘Capital of West Virginia’: A Case Study of Early Appalachian Migration” [Akron, Ohio; 1900-1930s ].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 6 no. 1-2 (Spring/Fall): 109-120.

Jones, Robert Emmet, J. Mark Fly, James Talley, and H. Ken Cordell.  2003.  “Green Migration into Rural America: The New Frontier of Environmentalism?” [survey data; inmigrants place higher priority on environmental protection].  Society and Natural Resources 16 (March): 221-238.

Keller, Shirley M., and Lonnie R. Helton.  2010.  “Culturally Competent Approaches for Counseling Urban Appalachian Clients: An Exploratory Case Study.”  Journal of Social Service Research 36, no. 2: 142-150.

Kratt, Mary Norton.  2009.  Charlotte, North Carolina: A Brief History.  Charleston, S.C.: History Press.  190 pp.

Kyriakoudes, Louis M.  2003.  The Social Origins of the Urban South: Race, Gender, and Migration in Nashville and Middle Tennessee, 1890-1930.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  226 pp.

Lanier, Gabrielle M.  2010.  “An Early Road to the Old West, 1780-1837.”  Chap. 4 in The Great Valley Road of Virginia: Shenandoah Landscapes from Prehistory to the Present, ed. W. Hofstra and K. Raitz, 108-134.  Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.

Laudun, John.  2000.  “‘There’s Not Much to Talk About When You’re Taking Pictures of Houses’: The Poetics of Vernacular Spaces” [Cincinnati; Charlie Kraft’s house; place and identity].  Southern Folklore 57 (no. 2): 135-158.

Lee, Tom.  2005.  The Tennessee-Virginia Tri-Cities: Urbanization in Appalachia, 1900-1950 [Johnson City, Kingsport, Bristol; shift from extractive industry to manufacturing].  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.  342 pp.

Lewandowski, James P., and Mark E. Reisinger.  1997.  “Pennsylvania Migration 1985-1995: Responses to the State’s Changing Space-Economy.”  Pennsylvania Geographer 35 (Spring): 5-22.

Liftig, Anya E.  2000.  “A Clear Connection: A Young Woman Tries to Bridge the Communication Gap Between Lost Creek, Ky., and Manhattan.”  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 17 (Summer): 41-44.

Love, Steve, and David Giffels.  1999.  Wheels of Fortune: The Story of Rubber in Akron [tire industry].  Edited by Debbie Van Tassel; foreword by Rita Dove.  Akron, Ohio: University of Akron Press. 359 pp.

Ludke, Robert L., Phillip J. Obermiller, C. Jeff Jacobson Jr., Thomas Shaw, and Victoria E. Wells.  2006.  “‘Sometimes It’s Hard to Figure’: The Functional Health Literacy of Appalachians in a Metropolitan Area” [and coping strategies; Cincinnati; Appalachians and non-Appalachians interviewed].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 12, no. 1 (Spring): 7-25.

Ludke, Robert L., Phillip J. Obermiller, and Eric W. Rademacher.  2012.  “Demographic Change in Appalachia: A Tentative Analysis.”  Journal of Appalachian Studies 18, no. 1-2 (Spring-Fall): 48-92.  Thirteen tables.  “...analyzes the demographic trends in Appalachia since the 2000 Census,” with a brief review of 1910-1970 trends for context.

Maloney, Michael.  1999.  “Evaluating Education Advocacy Work by the Urban Appalachian Council” [Cincinnati].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 5 (Spring): 129-132.

Maloney, Michael E., and Phillip J. Obermiller, section editors.  2006.  “Urban Appalachian Experience” [signed entries].  In Encyclopedia of Appalachia, ed. R. Abramson and J. Haskell, 346-391 (with introductory essay, 346-352).  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Mann, Ralph.  1996.  “Mountain Settlement: Appalachian and National Modes of Migration.”  Journal of Appalachian Studies 2 (Fall): 337-345.

Merriman-Pacton, Jamie.  2007.  “Moving Forward in Island, Kentucky” [a wake and granddaughter’s reunion].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 23, no. 2 (Fall/Winter): 24-27.

Miller, Zane L., and Bruce Tucker.  1998.  Changing Plans for America’s Inner Cities: Cincinnati’s Over-The -Rhine and Twentieth-Century Urbanism.  Urban Life and Urban Landscape Series. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.  227 pp.

Morrill, Richard, and Anthony Falit-Baiamonte.  1999.  “Social and Economic Change and Intrametropolitan Migration” [Atlanta; North Georgia; maps, tables].  In Migration and Restructuring in the United States: A Geographic Perspective, ed. K. Pandit and S. Withers, 59-94.  Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield.

Moser, Whet.  2012.  “Chicago’s Hillbilly Problem During the Great Migration.”  Chicago Magazine, 17 January.  1,754 words.  “During the 1950s, the Tribune dispatched tough, oddball investigative reporter and Radcliffe grad Norma Lee Browning to Uptown for a series beginning with ‘Girl Reporter Visits Jungles of Hillbillies’.”  http://www.chicagomag.com/Chicago-Magazine/The-312/January-2012/Chicagos-Hillbilly-Problem-During-the-Great-Migration/.

Myadze, Theresa.  2000.  “Revisiting Urban Appalachian Ethnicity” [class; culture].  In Appalachian Odyssey: Historical Perspectives on the Great Migration, ed. P. Obermiller, T. Wagner, and E. Tucker, 181-189.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger.

Obermiller, Phillip, Chad Berry, Roger Guy, J. Trent Alexander, William Philliber, Michael Maloney, and Bruce Tucker.  2009.  “Major Turning Points: Rethinking Appalachian Migration.” Appalachian Journal 36, no. 3/4 (Spring/Summer): 164-187.  Session papers from the 2007 Appalachian Studies Association Conference: “A Sociological Eye on Urban Appalachians” / Roger Guy --  “Appalachians, Southern Whites, and the Great Migration” / J. Trent Alexander --  “Appalachian Migrants Have Assimilated” / William Philliber -- “Reflections on the Migrant Experience” / Michael Maloney -- “The State of Scholarship on Migrants from the Mountains / Bruce Tucker -- “On Wholes and Parts and Something In Between” / Chad Berry -- “The Role of Migration Research in Appalachian Studies” / Phillip J. Obermiller.

Obermiller, Phillip J.  [1999] 2001.  “Paving the Way: Urban Organizations and the Image of Appalachians.”  In Back Talk from Appalachia: Confronting Stereotypes, ed. D. Billings, G. Norman, and K. Ledford, 251-266.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  Originally published as Confronting Appalachian Stereotypes.

Obermiller, Phillip J.  2004.  “Migration” [history].  In High Mountains Rising: Appalachia in Time and Place, ed. R. Straw and H. Blethen, 88-100.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Obermiller, Phillip J., and Jennifer Jervis Tighe.  2009.  “SmartMoney Community Services: A Working Model for Economic Development in Appalachian Communities” [Cincinnati].  In Participatory Development in Appalachia: Cultural Identity, Community, and Sustainability, ed. S. Keefe, 187-199.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Obermiller, Phillip, and Steven R. Howe.  2000.  Appalachian Migration Patterns, 1975-1980 and 1985-1990.  Washington, D.C. : Appalachian Regional Commission.  34 pp.  Tables; U.S. Census data.  http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS100222.

Obermiller, Phillip J., and Steven R. Howe.  2004.  “Moving Mountains: Appalachian Migration Patterns, 1995-2000” [tables].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 10, no. 3: 359-371.

Obermiller, Phillip J., and Steven R. Howe.  2001.  “New Paths and Patterns of Appalachian Migration, 1975-1990” [one-quarter population turnover].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 7 (Fall): 331-348.

Obermiller, Phillip J., and Thomas E. Wagner.  2000.  “‘Hands-Across-The-Ohio’: The Urban Initiatives of the Council of the Southern Mountains, 1954-1971” [Chicago].  In Appalachian Odyssey: Historical Perspectives on the Great Migration, ed. P. Obermiller, T. Wagner, and E. Tucker, 121-140.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger.

Obermiller, Phillip J., and Thomas E. Wagner.  1999.  “Hands-Across-The-Ohio: The Urban Initiatives of the Council of the Southern Mountains, 1954-1971.”  Journal of Appalachian Studies 5 (Spring): 5-26.

Obermiller, Phillip J., and Thomas E. Wagner.  2000.  “Cincinnati’s ‘Second Minority’: The Emergence of Appalachian Advocacy, 1953-1973.”  In Appalachian Odyssey: Historical Perspectives on the Great Migration, ed. P. Obermiller, T. Wagner, and E. Tucker, 193-214.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger.

Obermiller, Phillip J., and Thomas J. Wagner.  1997.  “Cincinnati’s ‘Second Minority’: The Emergence of Appalachian Advocacy, 1953-1973.”  Appalachian Journal 24 (Spring): 274-295.

Obermiller, Phillip J., comp.  2007.  Historical Sources on Appalachian Migration and Urban Appalachians, 1870-1999: A Selectively Annotated Bibliography [books, articles, dissertations/theses, and newspapers, arranged by decade; literature, bibliographies]. 119 pp.  http://uacvoice.org/research.html.

Obermiller, Phillip J., ed.  1996.  Down Home, Downtown: Urban Appalachians Today.  Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt.  224 pp.

Obermiller, Phillip J., Michael E. Maloney, and Pauletta Hansel.  2006.  “Appalachians Outside the Region” [out-migration and urban Appalachians; with suggested readings].  In A Handbook to Appalachia: An Introduction to the Region, ed. G. Edwards, J. Asbury, and R. Cox, 237-252.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Obermiller, Phillip J., Thomas E. Wagner, and E. Bruce Tucker, ed.  2000.  Appalachian Odyssey: Historical Perspectives on the Great Migration [12 essays].  Introduction, xi-xxiv.  Selected Bibliography, 231-236. Westport, Conn.: Praeger.  242 pp.

Pandit, Kavita.  1997.  “The Southern Migration Turnaround and Current Patterns.”  Southeastern Geographer 37 (November): 238-250.

Pierce, Dan.  1998.  “The Barbarism of the Huns: Family and Community Removal in the Establishment of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park.”  Tennessee Historical Quarterly 57 (Spring/Summer): 62-79.

Rohrer, S. Scott.  2010.  Wandering Souls: Protestant Migrations in America, 1630-1865.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  312 pp.  Contents, eight case studies including: Chap. 3. Ethnicity and mobility: Scotch-Irish Presbyterians in eighteenth-century America -- Chap. 4. Land and family: the pietist migration to North Carolina in the late Colonial Period [Moravians] -- Chap. 5. Reform and the missionary drive: Methodists in the Ohio Country [1794].

Rowles, Graham D., and John F. Watkins.  1995.  Demographic Change in Appalachia: Patterns and Trends: Final Report.  Washington: Appalachian Regional Commission.  16 pp.

Rubin, Miriam.  2008.  “Is Pittsburgh Appalachia?”  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 24, no. 1 (Spring/Summer): 34-38.  Special issue–“Urbane Appalachia.”

Schnell, George A.  1996.  “Pike County’s Location, Second-Home Population, and Retired In-Migrants: A Prescription for Continued Rapid Growth” [Pa.].  Pennsylvania Geographer  35 (Spring): 23-37.

Schwartz, Tammy A.  2003.  “Urban Appalachian Girls and Writing: Institutional and ‘Other/Ed’ Identities” [eight fifth-graders].  Pedagogy, Culture & Society 11 (no.1): 69-87.

Seaton, Carter Taylor.  2007.  “Those Who Came” [1960s-70s back-to-the-land movement in W.Va.; legacy].  Appalachian Heritage 35, no. 2 (Spring): 74-79.

Silverman, Sherman E.  2010.  “The Catoctin Valley of Maryland: A Region in Transition.”  Pennsylvania Geographer 48, no. 1 (Spring/Summer): 16-54.  Transformative human attributes of a Blue Ridge landscape; Frederick, Burkittsville, Brunswick, Middletown: Late 1700s -- Railroads, mid 1800s -- Pre-automobile, early 1900s -- Exurbia, early 2000s.

Stewart, Shirley L., and Connie Rice.  2000.  “The ‘Birds of Passage’ Phenomenon in West Virginia’s Out-Migration” [Chicago; Cleveland].  In Appalachian Odyssey: Historical Perspectives on the Great Migration, ed. P. Obermiller, T. Wagner, and E. Tucker, 39-47.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger.

Tolnay, Stewart E., et al.  2005.  “Distances Traveled during the Great Migration: An Analysis of Racial Differences among Male Migrants” [little direct mention of Appalachia].  Social Science History 29, no. 4 (Winter): 523-548.

Torres, Nola Hadley.  2005.  “Bringing My People Along: Urban Appalachian Women as Community Builders.”  In Beyond Hill and Hollow: Original Readings in Appalachian Women’s Studies, ed. E. Englehardt, 50-74.  Athens: Ohio University Press.

Tucker, Bruce.  2000.  “Imagining Appalachians: The Berea Workshop on the Urban Adjustment of Southern Appalachian Migrants” [1959-60s; Council of Southern Mountains; annual workshops perpetuated an invented narrative about migrants]. In Appalachian Odyssey: Historical Perspectives on the Great Migration, ed. P. Obermiller, T. Wagner, and E. Tucker, 97-120.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger.

Tucker, Bruce.  2000.  “Toward a New Ethnicity: Urban Appalachian Ethnic Consciousness in Cincinnati, 1950-1987.”  In Appalachian Odyssey: Historical Perspectives on the Great Migration, ed. P. Obermiller, T. Wagner, and E. Tucker, 159-180.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger.

Tucker, Bruce.  2000.  “Transforming Mountain Folk: Roscoe Giffin and the Invention of Urban Appalachia” [1950s “dysfunctional subculture argument”].  In Appalachian Odyssey: Historical Perspectives on the Great Migration, ed. P. Obermiller, T. Wagner, and E. Tucker, 69-95.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger.

Tucker, E. Carolyn.  2007.  “A Life Lost: The Tensions between Local Attachments and Cosmopolitan Attractions” [Ky.].  Southern Rural Sociology 22, no. 1: 80-97.

Turman-Deal, Jinny A.  2010.  “‘We Were an Oddity’: A Look at the Back-to-the-Land Movement in Appalachia” [1960s-70s homesteaders; friction and friendship with natives].  West Virginia History: A Journal of Regional Studies, new series, vol. 4, no. 1 (Spring): 1-32.

Turner, John, Erin Molenda, and Bernie Westendorff.  1996.  “Migrants in Appalachia” [Avery, Ashe, Alleghany, and Watauga Counties, N.C.].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 2 (Spring): 123-130.

Urbina, Ian.  2006.  “For Many West Virginians, Leaving Is First Step Home” [“economic push to leave and emotional pull to return”].  New York Times, 21 May, (sec. 1).  1136 words.  See multimedia interviews with Denise Giardina, Bob Henry Baber, and others: http://www.nytimes.com/2006/05/21/us/21west.html.

Wagner, Thomas E., and Phillip J. Obermiller.  1999.  Valuing Our Past, Creating Our Future: The Founding of the Urban Appalachian Council [1973; Cincinnati].  Berea, Ky.: Berea College Press.  106 pp.

Wagner, Thomas E., and Phillip J. Obermiller.  2000.  “Going Home without the Trip: Appalachian Migrant Organizations” [Ill.; Mich.; Ohio].  In Appalachian Odyssey: Historical Perspectives on the Great Migration, ed. P. Obermiller, T. Wagner, and E. Tucker, 215-230.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger.

Wagner, Thomas E., and Phillip J. Obermiller.  2011.  “A Double-Edged  Sword: Social Control in Appalachian Company Towns.”  In Engineering Earth: Impacts of Megaengineering Projects, ed. S. Brunn, 1917-1935.  New York: Springer.

Walker, Gregory Wayne.  1997.  “The White Urban Appalachian: A Call for a Study on Whiteness” [race and social class interaction].  Paper delivered at the 1997 Annual Meeting of The American Sociological Association, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, August 9-13.  Sociological Abstracts 45 (December): 97S33335.

Watkins, John F., Graham D. Rowles, and Shannon L. Bowles.  2004.  “Population Age Structure: Spatial Patterns and Change in Appalachia” [tables; 2000 Census].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 10, no. 3: 255-267.

Werner, Tammy, and Joanna Badagliacco.  2004.  “Appalachian Households and Families in the New Millennium: An Overview of Trends and Policy Implications” [population tables; female-headed households; poverty].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 10, no. 3: 373-388.

Williams, John R.  1997.  “‘Up Here, We Never See the Sun’: Homeplace and Crime in Urban Appalachian Narratives.”  In Usable Pasts: Traditions and Group Expressions in North America, ed. T. Tuleja, 215-231.  Logan: Utah State University Press.

Wise, Nicholas A.  2009.  “Quantitative Mapping and Population Restructuring: Migration, Diffusion, and Economic Change in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania” [population decline since 1960s; steel industry].  Pennsylvania Geographer 47, no. 1 (Fall/Winter): 20-48.