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Mass Media, Stereotypes

Hillbilly (and noble savage, mountain maid) stereotypes, satire, and misrepresentation in print, TV, radio, and movies; Hatfield and McCoy feuding image, cartoons (Snuffy Smith, Li'l Abner); and popular television series (The Waltons, The Andy Griffith Show, Mayberry RFD, The Beverly Hillbillies, The Dukes of Hazzard, Justified, and more recent reality shows including Moonshiners, Snake Man of Appalachia, Call of the Wildman, and American Stuffers).

Ahrens, Frank.  2003.  “A Wild Image Now Less Wonderful: Shootings Breach West Virginia's Cherished Isolation” [Charleston sniper; state’s image].  Washington Post, 21 August, 1(C).

Alderman, Derek H., Stefanie K. Benjamin, and Paige P. Schneider.  2012.  “Transforming Mount Airy into Mayberry: Film-Induced Tourism as Place-Making.”  Southeastern Geographer 52, no. 2 (Summer): 212-239.  Mount Airy, N.C. (Surry County) borders Virginia and is hometown of “The Andy Griffith Show” and “Mayberry RFD.”

Algeo, Katie.  2003.  “Locals on Local Color: Imagining Identity in Appalachia.”  Southern Cultures 9 (Winter): 27-54.

Andreychuk, Ed.  2005.  American Frontiersmen on Film and Television: Boone, Crockett, Bowie, Houston, Bridger, and Carson.  Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland.  270 pp.

Appalachian Journal Roundtable Discussion of American Hollow [HBO documentary film, produced and directed by Rory Kennedy, 1998; Perry Co., Ky.].  2002.  With Chad Berry, Dwight B. Billings, Amy Tipton Cortner, Anna Creadick, Anthony Harkins, Fred J. Hay, Katherine E. Ledford, Charles J. Maland, Mimi Pickering, Douglas Reichert Powell, and Gerald C. Wood.  Appalachian Journal 29 (Fall 2001-Winter 2002): 200-225.

Arnold, Edwin, et al.  2004.  “APPALJ Roundtable Discussion: Cold Mountain, The Film [2003; based on the 1997 novel by Charles Frazier].  Roundtable participants: Edwin T. Arnold, Tyler Blethen, Amy Tipton Cortner, Anna Creadick, John Crutchfield, Silas House, John C. Inscoe, Gordon B. McKinney, and Jack Wright.  Appalachian Journal (Spring/Summer): 316-353.

Arnold, Edwin T.  1997.  “Abner Unpinned: Al Capp’s Li’l Abner, 1940-1955" [syndicated comic strip].  Appalachian Journal 24 (Summer): 420-436.

Atkins, Joe.  2011.  “Voices: Where’s the Passion and the Justice in CNN’s Blair Mountain Documentary” [airing August 14, with special correspondent Soledad O’Brien].  Facing South: The Online Magazine of the Institute for Southern Studies, 12 August.  1,117 words.  Criticizes the reporting for not providing broader historical context, and compares Diane Sawyer’s shallow coverage in her February 2009, ABC-TV broadcast, “A Hidden America: Children of the Mountains” [Ky.].  http://www.southernstudies.org/2011/08/voices-wheres-the-passion-and-the-justice-in-cnns-blair-mountain-documentary.html.

Attention or Exploitation? What Is the Proper Role of the Filmmaker? [Appalachian region in films; “Stranger with a Camera” (2000)].  2000.  Sojourner 29 (July/August): 56-58.

Ballad of Frankie Silver With an Epilogue: The Making of a Ballad Singer --- “Transcription of the Sound Track” [film soundtrack; interviews].  2000.  North Carolina Folklore Journal 47 (Winter/Spring): 24-53.  Ordering information, p. 72.

Ballard, Sandra L.  [1999] 2001.  “Where Did Hillbillies Come From?  Tracing Sources of the Comic Hillbilly Fool in Literature.”  In Back Talk from Appalachia: Confronting Stereotypes, ed. D. Billings, G. Norman, and K. Ledford, 138-149.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  Originally published as Confronting Appalachian Stereotypes.

Banker, Mark.  2000.  “Beyond the Melting Pot and Multiculturalism: Cultural Politics in Southern Appalachia and Hispanic New Mexico” [comparative analysis].  Montana 50 (no. 2): 16-35.

Beilke, Debra.  2003.  “Evolving into Violence: Poor White Humor in T. S. Stribling’s Teeftallow [1926 local color novel; comic derision of Tenn. hill folk; (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday)]. In Evolution and Eugenics in American Literature and Culture, 1880-1940: Essays on Ideological Conflict and Complicity, ed. L. Cuddy and C. Roche, 102-115.  Lewisburg, Pa.: Bucknell University Press.

Berger, Arthur Asa.  [1969] 1994.  Li’l Abner: A Study in American Satire.  Studies in Popular Culture series.  Jackson: University Press of Mississippi.  205 pp.  Originally published: New York: Twayne.  Contents: Ch. 1. Popular Culture, the Comics, and Society -- Ch. 2. Li’l Abner’s Place in American Satire -- Ch. 3. Narrative Technique and the Meaning of Form -- Ch. 4. Dialogue and Damnation in Li’l Abner -- Ch. 5. Capp’s Graphic Technique: Social Criticism and the Pictorial Image -- Ch. 6. Conclusions.

Betts, Doris.  2002. “Through the Cumberland Gap” [essay; seeking and the overland journey].  Southern Cultures 8 (Spring): 8-20.

Biggers, Jeff.  2008.  “They Came Down from These Hills and Made History.”  Chronicle of Higher Education 54, no. 37 (May 23): 16-18(B).  Redressing stereotypes.

Billings, Dwight B.  [1999] 2001.  “Introduction.”  In Back Talk from Appalachia: Confronting Stereotypes, ed. D. Billings, G. Norman, and K. Ledford, 3-20.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  Originally published as Confronting Appalachian Stereotypes.

Billings, Dwight B., and Kathleen M. Blee.  [1996] 2008.  “‘Where the Sun Set Crimson and the Moon Rose Red’: Writing Appalachia and the Kentucky Mountain Feuds.”  In Southern Cultures: The Fifteenth Anniversary Reader, ed. H. Watson and L. Griffin, 328-352.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  Originally published, Southern Cultures 2 (nos. 3/4): 329-352.

Billings, Dwight B., Gurney Norman, and Katherine Ledford, ed.  1999.  Confronting Appalachian Stereotypes: Back Talk from an American Region.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  368 pp.

Billings, Dwight B., Gurney Norman, and Katherine Ledford, ed.  [1999] 2001.  Back Talk from Appalachia: Confronting Stereotypes.  Foreword by Ronald D. Eller.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  368 pp.  Paperback reprint, originally published as Confronting Appalachian Stereotypes: Back Talk from an American Region.

Birdwell, Michael E.  2004.  “Lights, Camera, Action!: The Upper Cumberland in Theater and Film” [Tenn.].  In Rural Life and Culture in the Upper Cumberland, ed. M. Birdwell and W. Dickinson, 302-322.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.

Black, Brian.  1995.  “Authority in the Valley: TVA in 'Wild River’ and the Popular Media, 1930-1940.”  Journal of American Culture 18 (Summer): 1-14.

Blee, Kathleen M., and Dwight B. Billings.  [1999] 2001.  “Where ‘Bloodshed Is a Pastime’: Mountain Feuds and Appalachian Stereotyping.”  In Back Talk from Appalachia: Confronting Stereotypes, ed. D. Billings, G. Norman, and K. Ledford, 119-137.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  Originally published as Confronting Appalachian Stereotypes.

Blevins, Brooks.  2001.  “Wretched and Innocent: Two Mountain Regions in the National Consciousness” [Ozark and Appalachian imagery].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 7 (Fall): 257-271.

Blevins, Brooks.  2002.  “‘In the Land of a Million Smiles’: Twentieth-Century America Discovers the Arkansas Ozarks.”  Arkansas Historical Quarterly (Spring): 1-35.

Blevins, Brooks.  2002.  Hill Folks: A History of Arkansas Ozarkers and Their Image.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  340 pp.

Blevins, Brooks.  2003.  “Hillbillies and the Holy Land: The Development of Tourism in the Arkansas Ozarks.”  In Southern Journeys: Tourism, History, and Culture in the Modern South, ed. R. Starnes, 42-65.  Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.

Blevins, Brooks.  2004.  “The Ozarks and Dixie: Considering a Region’s Southernness.”  In CrossRoads: A Southern Culture Annual, ed. Ted Olson, 23-35.  Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press.

Blevins, Brooks.  2009.  “The Arkansas Ghost Trial: The Connie Franklin Case and the Ozarks in the National Media” [1929; Stone Co.].  Arkansas Historical Quarterly  68, no. 3 (Autumn): 245-271.  http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_7461/is_200910/ai_n45878801/?tag=content;col1.

Blevins, Brooks.  2009.  Arkansas/Arkansaw: How Bear Hunters, Hillbillies, and Good Ol’ Boys Defined a State.  Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press.  242 pp.

Blevins, Brooks.  2012.  Ghost of the Ozarks: Murder and Memory in the Upland South [Stone Co., Ark.].  Urbana: University of Illinois Press.  296 pp.  Nationally-sensationalized 1929 murder and rape case; stereotypes.

Bohland, James, Anita Puckett, and Jean Plymale.  2006.  “The Decline of Space and the Ascent of Place: Internet Technology in Appalachia” [Internet access].  In Pittsburgh and the Appalachians: Cultural and Natural Resources in a Postindustrial Age, ed. J. Scarpaci, 155-166.  Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Bragg, Rick.  2005.  “Writing on Appalachia: Beauty, Strength, and Stereotype” [family history].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 21, no. 1 (Spring): 3-4.

Breen, Tom, and Shaya Tayefe Mohajer.  2008.  “‘Hillbilly’ a Fine Word -- ‘Less You Ain’t from Around Here; Some in Appalachia Embrace the Term.”  Washington Post, 11 March, 11(A).  741 words.  Casting company visits West Virginia looking for “extras to play inbred degenerates.”

Brosi, George, section editor.  2006.  “Images and Icons” [signed entries].  In Encyclopedia of Appalachia, ed. R. Abramson and J. Haskell, 199-237 (with introductory essay, 199-205). Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Brosi, George.  2009.  “This Side of the Mountain” [ABC News “20/20” program, “Children of Appalachia,” by Diane Sawyer].  Appalachian Heritage 37, no. 2 (Spring): 8-9.  Nearsighted; stereotypes; larger policy issues not addressed.

Brown, Margaret Lynn.  2002.  “Going Global: Mountain People All Over the World Use the Internet to Talk to Each Other” [www.mtnforum.org].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 19 (Spring): 24-26.

Brown, Rodger Lyle.  1997.  “Honoring the Cob: Hillbilly Days at Pikeville, Kentucky.”  In Ghost Dancing on the Cracker Circuit: The Culture of Festivals in the American South, by Rodger Lyle Brown, 65-98.  Jackson: University Press of Mississippi.

Call That a Joke? [flap over Abercrombie & Fitch t-shirt logo which reads, “It's all Relative in West Virginia”].  2004.  Economist 3 April: 33-34.

Calvert, Donna, comp.  2000.  “Films on West Virginia and Appalachia” [annotated filmography; 31 titles, mostly 1990s].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 26 (Summer): 68-70.

Cameron, Ardis.  2002.  “When Strangers Bring Cameras: The Poetics and Politics of Othered Places” [Stranger with a Camera (2000), by Elizabeth Barret].  American Quarterly 54 (September): 411-435.

Carson, Jo.  1995.  “Revenge is Sweet.”  Special Section: Image of the South.  Southern Exposure 23 (Spring): 25-26.

Castille, Philip Dubuisson.  1996.  “Too Odd for California: Incest and West Virginia in James M. Cain’s The Butterfly” [Knopf, 1947].  Appalachian Journal 23 (Winter): 148-162.

Charbonneau, Stephen Michael.  2009.  “Branching Out: Young Appalachian Selves, Autoethnographic Aesthetics, and the Founding of Appalshop” [Whitesburg, Ky.].  Journal of Popular Film & Television 37, no. 3 (Fall): 137-145.  Also reviews one of Appalshop’s earliest films, Herb E. Smith’s In Ya Blood (1971).

Chick, K. A.  2003.  “Confronting the Stereotypes of Appalachia” [lessons, positive reading list].  Social Studies and the Young Learner 16 (September/October): 26-30.

Cold Mountain: The Journey from Book to Film.  2003.  Edited by Linda Sunshine; foreword by Charles Frazier; introduction by Anthony Minghella.  A Newmarket Pictorial Moviebook.  New York: Newmarket Press.  192 pp.

Colistra, Rita.  2010.  “The Rumble and the Dark: Regional Newspaper Framing of the Buffalo Creek Mine Disaster of 1972” [Logan Co., W.Va.; impounded waste water flood; 125 dead].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 16, no. 1-2 (Spring-Fall): 79-100.  Tables.  Compares coverage by the Logan Banner and the Charleston Gazette.

Conkin, Paul K.  1998.  “Evangelicals, Fugitives, and Hillbillies: Tennessee’s Impact on American National Culture.”  In Tennessee History: The Land, The People, and the Culture, ed. C. Van West, 287-322.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Cooke-Jackson, Angela, and Elizabeth K. Hansen.  2008.  “Appalachian Culture and Reality TV: The Ethical Dilemma of Stereotyping Others.”  Journal of Mass Media Ethics 23, no. 3 (July): 183-200.  CBS’s The Beverly Hillbillies as minstrel show.  The authors include a “decision tree” to aid producers in creating ethical portrayals, plus Loyal Jones’s list of Appalachian Values.

Cooper, Cristopher A., and H. Gibbs Knotts.  2010.  “Rethinking the Boundaries of the South.”  Southern Cultures 16, no. 4 (Winter): 72-88.  Maps, tables.  A three-tiered South: “Southern to the Core,” “Pretty Darn Southern,” and “Sorta Southern.”

Cormier, Michelle.  2002.  “Black Song, White Song: Salvation through Radio in The Apostle and Oh [O] Brother, Where Art Thou?”  Journal of Religion and Film 6 (October): 13 para.  http://www.unomaha.edu/~wwwjrf/blacksong.htm.

Couchman, Jeffrey.  2009.  The Night of the Hunter: A Biography of a Film [long lost, first-draft screenplay by James Agee; based on 1953 novel by Davis Grubb].  Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press.  284 pp.

Cox, Karen L.  2011.  “Dixie on Early Radio.”  Chap. 3 in Dreaming of Dixie: How the South Was Created in American Popular Culture, by K. Cox, 58-80.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  Includes brief coverage of hillbilly music and comic characters: “National Barn Dance,” “Grand Ole Opry,” “Andy Griffith Show,” Judy Canova, and the progressive Arkansan duo (“not simply stupid hillbillies”) Lum and Abner.

Craig, Steve.  2009.  Out of the Dark: A History of Radio and Rural America [1920s-1940s].  Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.  228 pp.

Crawford, Martin.  2003.  “Cold Mountain Fictions: Appalachian Half-Truths” [Charles Frazier’s 1997 Civil War novel; external views of the highland South].  Appalachian Journal 30 (Winter-Spring): 182-195.

Cross, Al, Bill Bissett, and Heather Arrowsmith.  2011.  “Circulation Patterns of Weekly Newspapers in Central Appalachia and Kentucky” [maps, charts].  Grassroots Editor 52, no. 3 (Fall): 4-8.

Cross, Al.  2010.  “Gishes Willing to Follow the Story Wherever It Took Them.”  Grassroots Editor 51, no. 2 (Summer): 18.  Profile of Tom [d. 2008] and Pat Gish who published the crusading The Mountain Eagle for over 50 years, beginning in 1957, in Whitesburg, Letcher County, Ky.

Cunningham, Rodger.  [1999] 2001.  “The View from the Castle: Reflections on The Kentucky Cycle Phenomenon” [1993].  In Back Talk from Appalachia: Confronting Stereotypes, ed. D. Billings, G. Norman, and K. Ledford, 300-312.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  Originally published as Confronting Appalachian Stereotypes.

Cunningham, Rodger.  2007.  “Jane Smiley’s Divell Theorie”  Appalachian Heritage 35, no. 2 (Spring): 65-71.  Ripost to Smiley’s blog (Huffington Post, Dec. 29, 2006) which associates the Scotch-Irish Mountaineers with President Bush’s “red states” election backing.

Davenport, Tom.  2000.  “On the Making of The Ballad of Frankie Silver: Remarks by the Filmmaker” [1831 N.C. murder].  North Carolina Folklore Journal 47 (Winter/Spring): 15-23.

Davis, Floyd D.  2006.  “Struggling Across the Divide” [review of WGBH/Frontline’s “Country Boys,” 2005 documentary, Prestonsburg, Ky.].  Appalachian Heritage 34, no. 2 (Spring): 90-92.

Dean, Michelle.  2012.  “Here Comes the Hillbilly, Again: What Honey Boo Boo Really Says About American Culture.”  Slate Magazine, 24 August.  1411 words.  TLC (The Learning Channel) TV reality show series, debuted August 2012.

DeFoe, Mark.  2006.  “The Sago Mine Disaster: Another Way of Seeing” [Jan. 2, 2006; Upshur Co., W.Va.; national media stereotyping].  Appalachian Journal 33, no. 3-4 (Spring/Summer): 302-307.

Dennison, Corley F.  2001.  “WSAZ Radio: ‘The Worst Station from A to Z’” [Huntington, W.Va.; 1920s-1950s].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 27 (Winter): 40-45.

Dick, David.  2011.  “David Dick” [1930-2010; interview].  Still: The Journal, no. 6 (Summer).  2,060 words.  Kentucky writer, journalism professor, and CBS news correspondent.  http://www.stilljournal.net/david-dick-interview.php.

Doll, Susan M.  2002.  “Starstruck by Stage Struck: Hollywood Comes to New Martinsville” [1925 filming; Gloria Swanson].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 28 (Spring): 36-43.

Donesky, Finlay.  [1999] 2001.  “America Needs Hillbillies: The Case of The Kentucky Cycle” [by Robert Schenkkan (1993)].  In Back Talk from Appalachia: Confronting Stereotypes, ed. D. Billings, G. Norman, and K. Ledford, 283-299.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  Originally published as Confronting Appalachian Stereotypes.

Douglass, Thomas E.  2004.  “The Essential Cold Mountain” [review of the 2003 film].  Appalachian Heritage 32 (Winter): 54-57.

Ellis, Anne.  1999.  “Performing Appalachia: Roadside Theater and the Performance of Identity.”  Southern Quarterly 37 (Winter): 47-58.

Engelhardt, Elizabeth S. D.  2003.  “Voyeurs and Tourists: Appalachian Women in Sketches and Stories” [local color literature, circa 1890s].  Ch. 2 in The Tangled Roots of Feminism, Environmentalism, and Appalachian Literature, 33-58.  Series in Ethnicity and Gender in Appalachia.  Athens: Ohio University Press.  207 pp.

Fine, Gary Alan, and Ryan D. White.  2002.  “Creating Collective Attention in the Public Domain: Human Interest Narratives and the Rescue of Floyd Collins” [Ky. caver trapped for 17 days in 1925; media frenzy].  Social Forces 81 (September): 57-85.

Fisher, Stephen L.  [1999] 2001.  “Appalachian Stepchild” [identity].  In Back Talk from Appalachia: Confronting Stereotypes, ed. D. Billings, G. Norman, and K. Ledford, 187-190.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  Originally published as Confronting Appalachian Stereotypes.

Flores, Richard R.  2002.  Remembering the Alamo: Memory, Modernity, and the Master Symbol [cinematic images of Davy Crockett as hero/martyr].  History, Culture, and Society Series.  Austin: University of Texas Press.  192 pp.

Folks, Jeffrey J.  1995.  “James Agee’s Filmscript for ‘The Night of the Hunter’” [special issue: Southern Novelists on Stage and Screen].  Southern Quarterly 33 (Winter-Spring): 151-160.

Foster, Gary S., and Richard L. Hummel.  1997.  “Wham, Bam, Thank You, Sam: Critical Dimensions of the Persistence of Hillbilly Caricatures.”  Sociological Spectrum 17 (April-June): 157-176.

Fraley, Jill M.  2007.  “Appalachian Stereotypes and Mountain Top Removal.”  Peace Review 19, no. 3 (July): 365-370.

Fredriksson, Kristine.  2000.  “Minnie Pearl and Southern Humor in Country Entertainment” [1912-1996].  In Country Music Annual 2000, ed. C. Wolfe and J. Akenson, 101-111.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.

Garrison, Andrew S.  1995.  “Andrew S. Garrison.”  Interview by J. W. Williamson.  Appalachian Journal 22 (Winter): 174-193.

Gates, Anita.  2005.  “Exploring a Maligned Region So Many Think They Know” [reviews the documentary film “The Appalachians”].  New York Times, 16 June, 10(E).

Giardina, Denise.  [1999] 2001.  “Appalachian Images: A Personal History.”  In Back Talk from Appalachia: Confronting Stereotypes, ed. D. Billings, G. Norman, and K. Ledford, 161-173.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  Originally published as Confronting Appalachian Stereotypes.

Gold, David.  2006.  “Southerners Anonymous” [essay: identity, hillbilly stereotype, Miami].  In CrossRoads: A Southern Culture Annual, ed. Ted Olson, 3-10.  Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press.

Goodnite, Abby Gail, and Ivan M. Tribe.  1998.  “‘Living the Right Life Now’: Lynn Davis & Molly O’Day” [interview with 83 year old, Huntington, W.Va. Christian/gospel radio host].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 24 (Spring): 56-64.

Graham, Allison, and Sharon Montieth, ed.  2011.  Media. Vol. 18 of The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  439 pp.  170 short thematic essays including: Southern media cultures -- Broadcast news, voices, and accents -- Comic strips -- Film industry -- Internet representations of the South -- Journalism (print) and labor -- Newspapers -- Radio industry, early -- Television series -- James Agee -- Appalshop -- The Beverly Hillbillies -- Cherokee Phoenix -- The Civil War (Ken Burns’s) -- Ethan and Joel Coen -- Country Music Television (CMT) -- Deliverance -- The Dukes of Hazzard -- Tennessee Ernie Ford -- Gone with the Wind -- Grand Ole Opry -- Great Speckled Bird -- Andy Griffith -- Joel Chandler Harris -- Hee Haw -- Nashville -- Dolly Parton -- Minnie Pearl -- The Real McCoys -- Burt Reynolds -- Roots -- John Sayles -- Southern Cultures -- Southern Exposure -- Southern Living -- Sissy Spacek -- The Waltons -- WSM.

Green, Archie.  1995.  “Appalachia: The View From San Francisco” [keynote address].  In Appalachia and the Politics of Culture, ed. E. C. Fine.  Journal of the Appalachian Studies Association 7: 6-17.  Johnson City: East Tennessee State University, Center for Appalachian Studies and Services.

Grundy, Pamela.  1995.  “‘We Always Tried to Be Good People’: Respectability, Crazy Water Crystals, and Hillbilly Music on the Air, 1933-1935.”  Journal of American History 81 (March): 1591-1620.

Gurkin, Kathryn Bright.  2005.  “White Trash in Trailers: Southern Literature and Downward Mobility.”  In Crossroads: A Southern Culture Annual, ed. Ted Olson, 267-271.  Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press.

Hall, Randal L.  2007.  Lum and Abner: Rural America and the Golden Age of Radio [1930s radio show; Arkansas; hillbilly stereotype, music; 29 early scripts].  New Directions in Southern History.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  255 pp.

Halsey, Derek.  2011.  “A Celebration of the Bluegrass Music of The Andy Griffith Show” [TV series, 1960-68).  Bluegrass Unlimited 45, no. 12 (June): 32-35.  The Dillards played the backwoods “Darlings” on the show, and Griffith tried to include their music as much as possible.

Hamner, Earl, and Ralph Giffin.  2002.  Goodnight John-Boy: A Celebration of an American Family and the Values That Have Sustained Us Through Good Times and Bad [memory book of The Waltons television show, 1972-80].  Nashville, Tenn.: Cumberland House.  288 pp.

Hamner, Earl.  2006.  Generous Women: An Appreciation.  Nashville, Tenn.: Cumberland House.  236 pp.  [profiles include Mabel Wheaton, Thomas Wolfe’s sister; Harper Lee; Eleanor Roosevelt; Tallulah Bankhead; Patricia Neal; Michael Learned; Lillian Carter; Minnie Pearl; Jane Wyman].

Hanna, Stephen P.  1998.  “Three Decades of Appalshop Films: Representational Strategies and Regional Politics.”  Appalachian Journal 25 (Summer): 372-413.

Hanna, Stephen P.  2000.  “Representation and the Reproduction of Appalachian Space: A History of Contested Signs and Meanings” [with filmography].  Historical Geography 28: 179-207.

Hardwig, Bill.  2010.  Review essay of Critical Regionalism: Connecting Politics and Culture in the American Landscape, by Douglas Reichert Powell (University of North Carolina Press, 2007).  Southern Quarterly 47, no. 3 (Spring): 193-198.

Hark, Ina Rae.  2000.  “Blackfaced Rednecks: The Problem of Backcountry Whites as Victims in John Saylor’s Matewan” [1987 film of 1920 Mingo Co., W.Va. miners].  In Caverns of Night: Coal Mines in Art, Literature, and Film, ed. W. Thesing, 255-266.  Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.

Harkins, Anthony, Katherine E. Ledford, and Douglas Reichert Powell, section editors.  2006.  “Media” [signed entries].  In Encyclopedia of Appalachia, ed. R. Abramson and J. Haskell, 1679-1754 (with introductory essay, 1679-1686).  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Harkins, Anthony A.  2002.  “The Hillbilly in the Living Room: Television Representations of Southern Mountaineers in Situation Comedies, 1952-1971.”  Appalachian Journal 29 (Fall 2001-Winter 2002): 98-126.

Harkins, Anthony.  2004.  Hillbilly: A Cultural History of an American Icon.  New York: Oxford University Press.  324 pp.

Harmon, Carolyn.  2009.  “Pure Entertainment: Wallace Horn and the ‘Friendly Neighbor Show’.”  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 35, no. 1 (Spring): 20-25.  Logan County weekly variety radio show on WVOW begun in 1967 featuring live music and vaudevillian comedy.

Hartman, Ian C.  2012.  “Appalachian Anxiety: Race, Gender, and the Paradox of ‘Purity’ in an Age of Empire, 1873–1901.”  American Nineteenth Century History 13, no. 2 (June): 229-255.  “...the Appalachian South was a reserve of ‘pure American stock’ [and]....a bulwark to the effects of immigration....This article exposes the tension of an allegedly superior population that is perceived to have declined into abject poverty and moral depravity.”

Hatfield, Coleman, and F. Keith Davis.  2008.  The Feuding Hatfields and McCoys: Timeline and Pictorial History.  Chapmanville, W.Va.: Woodland Press.  192 pp.

Hatfield, Sharon.  1995  “Mountain Justice: The Making of a Feminist Icon and a Cultural Scapegoat.”  Appalachian Journal 23 (Fall): 26-47.

Hatfield, Sharon.  2002.  “Looking for the Quintessential June: Archetypes and Stereotypes in John Fox Jr.’s Film Legacy.”  Appalachian Journal 29 (Fall 2001-Winter 2002): 128-137.

Heddendorf, David.  2004.  “Minghella’s Mountain [review of Cold Mountain, 2003 film directed by Anthony Minghella].  Appalachian Heritage 32 (Winter): 58-61.

Herzog, Mary Jean Ronan.  1999.  “Including Appalachian Stereotypes in Multicultural Education: An Analysis of Bill Bryson’s A Walk In The Woods” [New York: Broadway Books, 1998].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 5 (Spring): 123-128.

Hobson, Fred.  [1999] 2001.  “Up in the Country” [N.C.; family roots].  In Back Talk from Appalachia: Confronting Stereotypes, ed. D. Billings, G. Norman, and K. Ledford, 174-183.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  Originally published as Confronting Appalachian Stereotypes.

Hoffman, Carl.  1996.  “The Voice of the Mountains” [Appalshop Productions, Whitesburg, Ky.].  Appalachia: Journal of the Appalachian Regional Commission 29 (September-December): 38-44.

Hsiung, David C.  2004.  “Stereotypes” [history].  In High Mountains Rising: Appalachia in Time and Place, ed. R. Straw and H. Blethen, 101-113.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Huber, Patrick, and Kathleen Drowne.  2008.  “Hill Billy: The Earliest Known African American Usages.”  American Speech 83, no. 2 (Summer): 214-221.  First popular published use of the term, 1890s.

Huber, Patrick.  2008.  “The Riddle of the Horny Hillbilly.”  In Dixie Emporium: Tourism, Foodways, and Consumer Culture in the American South, ed. A. Stanonis, 69-86.  Athens: University of Georgia Press.  See also: “Introduction: Thoughtful Souvenirs,” by Ted Ownby, 19-23.

Hutton, T. R. C.  2007.  “‘Too Much Politics, Not Enough Corn’: The Nineteenth-Century Media Battles over Appalachia” [1870s Ky. riots; various newspaper interpretations: North, South, Democrat, Republican].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 13, no. 1-2 (Spring-Fall): 153-166.

Inge, M. Thomas.  2001.  “Al Capp’s South: Appalachian Humor in Li’l Abner.”  Studies in American Humor 3 (no. 8): 4-20.

Inge, M. Thomas.  2011.  “Li’l Abner, Snuffy, Pogo, and Friends: The South in the American Comic Strip.”  Southern Quarterly 48, no. 2 (Winter): 6-74, plus 40 images.  Overview with a focus on artist Al Capp and his “Li’l Abner” strip (begun 1934), and character Snuffy Smith.

Inge, M. Thomas.  2012.  “Li’l Abner, Snuffy, and Friends: The Appalachian South in the American Comic Strip.”  In Comics and the U.S. South, ed. B. Costello and Q. Whitted, 3-28.  Jackson: University Press of Mississippi.

Inscoe, John C.  1997.  “Slavery, Freedom, Frontier: The Historical Perspective.”  Part 2 of “Hollywood Does Antebellum Appalachia and Gets It (Half) Right: The Journey of August King.”  Appalachian Journal 24 (Winter): 204-215.

Institute for Rural Journalism & Community Issues staff.  2005.  “Bringing the News Back Home” [U. Ky.; The Rural Blog, irjci.blogspot.com].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 21, no. 1 (Spring): 14-16.

Jackson, Dot.  2002.  “Harvey J. Miller: The Sage of Pigeon Roost” [N.C.; 1909-2001?; columnist for Tri-County News for nearly 50 years].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 19 (Winter): 15-17.

Jacobs, Philip Walker.  2001.  The Life and Photography of Doris Ulmann [1882-1934].  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  328 pp.

Johnson, Skip, and Ferrell Friend.  2007.  “Country Photographer Ferrell Friend: 70 Years Behind the Camera” [b. 1913; retired from the Charleston Gazette].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life  33, no. 2 (Summer): 10-17.

Jones, Ben.  2008.  Redneck Boy in the Promised Land: The Confessions of “Crazy Cooter.”  New York: Harmony Books.  292 pp.  Jones is a 1980s “Dukes of Hazzard” TV star and former Ga. congressman.

Jones, Diana Nelson.  2001.  “Going Home to Rediscover ‘Appalachia’” [journalist prepares three-part feature for Pittsburgh Post-Gazette].  Nieman Reports 55 (Spring): 31-32.

Jones, Preston Neal.  2002.  Heaven and Hell to Play With: The Filming of The Night of the Hunter” [1955; based on the 1953 novel by Davis Grubb].  New York: Lamplight Editions.  398 pp.

Kay, Trey.  2009.  “The Great Textbook War” [1974, Kanawha Co., W.Va.; radio documentary].  West Virginia Public Radio, Charleston, W.Va.: WVPN, October 31, 2009.  “Part one describes the beginning of the controversy, as school board member Alice Moore discovers what she considers anti-Christian and anti-American views in textbooks.  Part two chronicles the school boycotts, miner strikes, and school bombings that followed.  Part three details the end of the controversy, and its ongoing legacy.”  http://www.wvpubcast.org/newsarticle.aspx?id=11860.

Kendrick, Leatha.  2003.  “Portrait of Doris Ulmann” [1882-1934; photographer whose Appalachian portraits appear throughout this issue].  Appalachian Heritage 31 (Fall): 3-11.

Keough, Sara Beth.  2010.  “The Importance of Place in Community Radio Broadcasting: A Case Study of WDVX, Knoxville, Tennessee.”  Journal of Cultural Geography 27, no. 1 (February): 77-98.

Ketchell, Aaron K.  2007.  “Hillbilly Heaven: Labor, Leisure, and the Ozark Trickster.”  Chap. 6 in Holy Hills of the Ozarks: Religion and Tourism in Branson, Missouri, 170-204.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.  300 pp.

Ketchell, Aaron K.  2008.  “Hillbilly Heaven: Branson Tourism and the Hillbilly of the Missouri Ozarks.”  In Dixie Emporium: Tourism, Foodways, and Consumer Culture in the American South, ed. A. Stanonis, 120-147.  Athens: University of Georgia Press.  See also: “Introduction: Identity Market,” by W. Fitzhugh Brundage, 89-93.

Knepper, Steven.  2008.  “‘Do You Know What the Hail You’re Talkin’ About?’: Deliverance, Stereotypes, and the Lost Voice of the Rural Poor.”  James Dickey Newsletter 25, no. 1 (Fall): 17-29.

Krainak, Paul.  1997.  “Appalachian High: Resisting Misrepresentation” [considers mass media stereotypes and discusses the work of a number of Appalachian artists].  New Art Examiner 25 (October): 30-35.

Kutzer, Jewell Mitchell.  2001.  Memories of Mayberry: A Nostalgic Look at Andy Griffith’s Hometown, Mount Airy, North Carolina [author’s hometown].  St. Augustine, Fla.: Dynamic Living Press.  189 pp.

Kyriakoudes, Louis M.  2006.  “The Grand Ole Opry and Big Tobacco” [radio scripts from R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., 1948-1959].  Southern Cultures 12, no. 2: 76-89.

Lambrecht, Winnie.  2012. “Folkstreams.net: A National Preserve of Documentary Films about American Roots Cultures” [website review essay].  Journal of American Folklore 125, no. 497 (Spring): 375-376.  Created in 2000 and based in N.C., Folkstreams.net provides open access to  more than 200 streamed videos and film clips featuring extraordinary talents of ordinary citizens,  many of whom are Appalachian.  Titles listed in the “Films About Making Things” section include: “Alex Stewart: Cooper” (1973); “Appalachian Journey” (Alan Lomax, 1991); and “Edd Presnell: Dulcimer Maker” (1973).

Lanier, Parks.  2002.  “The Ugly Appalachian: A View from England” [Observer Magazine, 1992; Deliverance syndrome; Ky.].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 19 (Spring): 27-30.

Lanier, Parks.  2003.  “The Absence of an Appalachian Aesthetic” [“codifying and nullifying,” e.g., shiftless hillbilly].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 20, no. 2-3 (Summer/Winter): 27-29.

Ledford, Katherine Elizabeth.  2002.  “‘The primitive circle’: Inscribing Class in Southern Appalachian Travel Writing, 1816-1846.”  Appalachian Journal 29 (Fall 2001-Winter 2002): 68-89.

Ledford, Katherine.  [1999] 2001.  “A Landscape and a People Set Apart: Narratives of Exploration and Travel in Early Appalachia.”  In Back Talk from Appalachia: Confronting Stereotypes, ed. D. Billings, G. Norman, and K. Ledford, 47-66.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  Originally published as Confronting Appalachian Stereotypes.

Leidholdt, Alexander S.  2011.  “‘Never Thot This Could Happen in the South!’: The Anti-Lynching Advocacy of Appalachian Newspaper Editor Bruce Crawford” [Norton, Va.; Letcher Co., Ky.; 1927-1928].  Appalachian Journal 38, no. 2-3 (Winter/Spring): 198-232.  Culminates in anti-lynching law.

Leiter, Andrew B., ed.  2011.  Southerners on Film: Essays on Hollywood Portrayals Since the 1970s.  Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland.  Collection of 15 essays including the following four: “That old-timey music”: nostalgia and the Southern tradition in O Brother, Where Art Thou? / Andrew B. Leiter -- The Junebug dilemma / Bryan Giemza -- Imagined realities: Appalachia, Arabia, and Orientalism in Songcatcher and The Sheik / Thomas R. Britt and Usame Tunagur -- “You taste of America”: Talladega Nights, Deliverance, and Southern studies / Tara Powell.

Lester, Colleen Coleman.  1998.  “Seeing” [Appalachian newcomer’s first impressions controvert stereotypes; mules plowing].  Appalachian Heritage 26 (Spring): 36-38.

Lewis, Anne.  2012.  “‘That Point of Human Connection’: An Interview with Filmmaker Anne Lewis.”  By Jesse Buckwalter, Kristen R. Dearmin, Rebekah Epling, Jameson Jones, Aaron Lancaster, Skye McFarland, Trevor McKenzie, Rachel Lanier Roberts, Leigh Walters, Bill Ward II, with Patricia D. Beaver.  Appalachian Journal 40, no. 1-2 (Fall 2012/Winter 2013): 58-76.  Includes “Anne Lewis: Selected Filmography,” 76 [29 titles, 1984-2012, most produced for Appalshop].

Lifford, Brad.  2011.  “Get Low” [movie, 2009].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 26, no. 2 (Winter): 77-78.  Real life story of Roane County, Tennessean Felix “Bush” Breazeale who staged his 1938 funeral while still alive and became a national sensation.  Portrayed by Robert Duvall in the film which also stars Bill Murray and Sissy Spacek.

Lifford, Brad.  2011.  “Knoxville-Born Actress Dale Dickey Relishes Characters Who Move in Life’s Darker Edges.”  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 27, no. 1 (Summer): 65-66.  Starred in the independent film Winter’s Bone (2010), as a “meth-addled” woman in the TV series “Breaking Bad,” and as Patty the Daytime Hooker in the comedy series “My Name Is Earl.”

Lifford, Brad.  2011.  “Remembering Patricia Neal” [1926-2010].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 26, no. 2 (Winter): 79-80.  Neal, who grew up in Knoxville, Tenn., played Olivia Walton in The Homecoming: A Christmas Story (1971), which served as the pilot for the TV series, The Waltons (1971-1981) created by Earl Hamner.

Lifford, Brad.  2012.  “The Last Mountain Weaves Powerful Message About the Controversial Hunt for Coal in West Virginia” [documentary film, 2011].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 27, no. 2 (Winter): 79-80.  http://thelastmountainmovie.com/.

Lukinbeal, Chris.  2006.  “Runaway Hollywood: Cold Mountain, Romania.”  Erdkunde 60, no. 4: 337-345.  Romania as filming location for Cold Mountain (2003).

Lunsford, Erik.  1996.  “The Great Locomotive Chase: Hollywood Comes to Rabun County” [Ga.; setting for 1956 Walt Disney film; oral history].  Foxfire Magazine 30 (Fall/Winter): 83-91.

Mace, Borden.  1995.  “Borden Mace.”  Interview by Steve Ward.  Appalachian Journal 23 (Fall): 48-69.

Mandrell, Liz.  1998.  “Accent-uate the Positive” [stereotyped by a Southern (Ky.) accent].  Appalachian Heritage 26 (Fall): 15-18.

Manning, James.  2001.  “Appalachians in the Spotlight: Focus for the Future” [depiction in national theater, 1920s to The Kentucky Cycle (1992)].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 7 (Fall): 301-313.

Martin, C. Brenden.  2000.  “To Keep the Spirit of Mountain Culture Alive: Tourism and Historical Memory in the Southern Highlands” [stereotypes perpetuated and marketed]. In Where These Memories Grow: History, Memory, and Southern Identity, ed. W. Brundage, 249-269.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Mason, Bobbie Ann.  1993.  “Recycling Kentucky” [discusses the play “The Kentucky Cycle,” by Robert Schenkkan, 1992 Pulitzer Prize winner; negative stereotypes].  New Yorker 69, no. 36 (November 1): 50-62.

Mason, Carol.  2005.  “The Hillbilly Defense: Culturally Mediating U.S. Terror at Home and Abroad” [Jessica Lynch, Lynndie England, Eric Rudolph].  NWSA Journal 17, no. 3 (Fall): 39-63.

Massey, Carissa.  2007.  “Appalachian Stereotypes: Cultural History, Gender, and Sexual Rhetoric.”  Journal of Appalachian Studies 13, no. 1-2 (Spring-Fall): 124-136.

McCusker, Kristina M.  1999.  “‘Bury Me Beneath the Willow’: Linda Parker and Definitions of Tradition on the National Barn Dance, 1932-1935” [Chicago’s WLS radio show; gendered image of girl singers].  Southern Folklore 56 (no. 3): 223-243.

McEuen, Melissa A.  1995.  “Doris Ulmann and Marion Post Wolcott: The Appalachian South.”  History of Photography 19 (Spring): 4-12.

McEuen, Melissa A.  2000.  Seeing America: Women Photographers Between the Wars [Doris Ulmann, Dorothea Lange, Marion Post Wolcott, Margaret Bourke-White, Berenice Abbott].  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  360 pp.

McGeachy, Liz.  2003.  “Creating It Yourself: Appalshop’s Appalachian Media Institute” [youth media program; community documentary; Whitesburg, Ky.].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 20 (Spring): 15-18.

McKinney, Gordon B.  1998.  “The First False Frontier: Eastern Kentucky and the Movies.”  Register of the Kentucky Historical Society 95 (Spring): 119-136.

McKinney, Gordon.  2000.  “Jerry Williamson: An Appreciation” [editor, Appalachian Journal, 1972-2000].  Appalachian Journal 28 (Fall): 68-77.

McNeil, W.K., ed.  [1989] 1995.  Appalachian Images in Folk and Popular Culture [anthology of articles and essays covering 130 years].  2nd ed., with a foreword by Loyal Jones.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.  348 pp.  Contents: PART I. A strange land and a peculiar people. A week in the Great Smoky Mountains (1860) / R., of Tennessee -- A strange land and a peculiar people (1873) / Will Wallace Harney -- Through Cumberland Gap on horseback (1892) / James Lane Allen -- The moonshiner of fact (1896) / Francis Lynde -- PART II. Our contemporary ancestors. Our contemporary ancestors in the southern mountains (1899) / William Goodell Frost -- Romance and tragedy of Kentucky feuds (1899) / Josiah Stoddard Johnston -- The southern mountaineer (1901) / John Fox, Jr. -- The Anglo-Saxons of the Kentucky mountains: a study in anthropogeography (1901) / Ellen Churchill Semple -- Life in the Kentucky mountains, by a mountaineer (1908) / Samuel Johnson -- The Virginia mountaineers (1913) / John H. Ashworth -- Elizabethan America (1929) / Charles Morrow Wilson -- PART III. Change comes to the Appalachian mountaineer. Change comes to the Appalachian mountaineer (1930) / Mary French Caldwell -- The mountain handicrafts: their importance to the country and to the people in the mountain hoomes (1930) / Allen Eaton -- Life in a Blue Ridge hollow (1931) / Margaret A. Hitch -- Changes in the dietary habits of remote mountain people since 1900 (1935) / Lester R. Wheeler -- Shingle making on the lesser waters of the Big Creek of the French Broad River (1946) / Edmund Cody Burnett -- PART IV. Rethinking usages: the age of functional studies. Ordeal by serpents, fire, and strychnine: a study of some provocative psychosomatic phenomena (1960) / Berthold E. Schwarz -- The Appalachian log cabin (1963) / Henry Glassie -- Appalachia on television: region as symbol in American popular culture (1980) / Horace Newcomb -- Rethinking the house: interior space and social change (1987) / Michael Ann Williams.

Media and Appalachia, The: Portrayals of the Region from Inside and Out.  2005.  Special issue, Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 21, no. 1 (Spring): 1-36.

Mellon, Steve.  2001.  “Carefully Choosing the Images of Poverty” [Inez, Ky.; photojournalist doing a feature on the region].  Nieman Reports 55 (Spring): 33-34.

Miner, Curt.  2000.  “A Coal Miner’s Deputy” [profiles Don Knotts, from Morgantown, W.Va.].  Western Pennsylvania History 83 (Summer): 60-62.

Moore, Phyllis Wilson.  2001.  “Starting Points: Refuting the Legend of the Piwash Revisited” [defense of W.Va. in light of hillbilly stereotyping].  Traditions: A Journal of West Virginia Folk Culture and Educational Awareness 6: 38-40.

Moraes, Lisa de.  2002.  “Gold in Them Thar ‘Hillbillies’? CBS Plans a Real-Life Version of Its ‘60s Hick Hit.”  Washington Post, 29 August, 1(A).

Narine, Anil.  2008.  “Global Trauma at Home: Technology, Modernity, Deliverance.”  Journal of American Studies 42, no. 3 (December): 449-470.  1972 film, Deliverance.

Nava, Margaret.  2012.  “The Old Wooden Phone.”  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 27, no. 2 (Winter): 38-40.  First phones, and rural electrification in 1940s Upper East Tennessee.

NeCamp, Samantha.  2011.  “The Hazel Green Herald and the ‘Idea of Appalachia’.”  Journal of Appalachian Studies 17, no. 1-2 (Spring-Fall): 66-84.  A late 19th-century/early 20th-century, eastern Kentucky [Wolfe Co.] newspaper and the literate populace it invokes, contrary to local color promulgated ideas of Appalachian illiteracy.

Nipper, Melissa.  2012.  “Serving Appalachia Through Theatre.”  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 27, no. 2 (Winter): 54-55.  Milligan College, Johnson City, Tenn.

Norman, Gurney.  1999.  “Notes on The Kentucky Cycle” [by Robert Schankken (1993)].  In Back Talk from Appalachia: Confronting Stereotypes, ed. D. Billings, G. Norman, and K. Ledford, 327-332.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  Originally published as Confronting Appalachian Stereotypes.

O’Brien, John.  2003.  “Tall Tales of Appalachia” [criticism of CBS’s planned “Beverly Hillbillies” reality TV show].  New York Times, 10 May, 21(A).

Olson, Ted.  1999.  “Holistic Folklife Studies: Finding the Cultural Identity of Regions within a Region” [Appalachian subregions].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 5 (Fall): 257-261.

Owensby, Earl.  1994.  “Earl Owensby.”  Interview by Nancy M.  Collins.  Appalachian Journal 21 (Spring): 280-303.

Palmer, Louis H., III.  1999.  “An Appalachian Western: Class and Gender in H. E. Danford’s The West Virginian”  [1926 local color novel; examines stereotyping].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 5 (Spring): 61-76.

Pancake, Ann.  2000.  “‘Similar Outcroppings from the Same Strata’: The Synonymous ‘Development’ Imagery of Appalachian Natives and Natural Resources” [early 20th century].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 6 no. 1-2 (Spring/Fall): 100-108.

Patterson, Beverly B.  2000.  “‘Give Me the Truth!’: The Frankie Silver Story in Contemporary North Carolina” [video review of The Ballad of Frankie Silver (Davenport Films, 1996)].  Journal of American Folklore 113 (Spring): 200-203.

Patterson, Beverly.  2000.  “‘Give Me the Truth!’: The Frankie Silver Story in Contemporary North Carolina” [evolution of the 1996 film documentary; N.C.].  North Carolina Folk Journal 47 (Winter/Spring): 54-61.

Patterson, Daniel W.  2000.  “The Ballad and the Legends of Frankie Silver: A Search for the Woman’s Voice” [video review of The Ballad of Frankie Silver (Davenport Films, 1996)].  Journal of American Folklore 113 (Spring): 203-207.

Patterson, Daniel.  2000.  “The Ballad and the Legends of Frankie Silver: A Search for the Woman’s Voice” [voiceless murder defendant; 1831 N.C.].  North Carolina Folk Journal 47 (Winter/Spring): 62-71.

Person, James E.  2005.  Earl Hamner: From Walton’s Mountain to Tomorrow: A Biography.  Nashville, Tenn.: Cumberland House.  293 pp.

Plasky, Joe.  2012.  “Cable TV Comes to Red Jacket” [Mingo Co.; 1950s].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 38, no. 4 (Winter): 42-47.  The “cable” system was “two copper wires that ran up the mountain [and] had to be separated to keep the television signal from being scrambled.”

Platania, Joseph.  2001.  “Just-Rite: Huntington’s Air-Ola Radio Company” [1920s radio manufacturing company; sidebar on related Museum of Radio & Technology].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 27 (Winter): 34-39.

Podber, Jacob J.  2001.  “Early Radio in Rural Appalachia: An Oral History” [Ohio].  Journal of Radio Studies 8, no. 2 (Winter): 388-410.  Fifty-one residents from Morgan, Vinton, Meigs, and Athens Counties were interviewed, the majority in their 70s and 80s.

Podber, Jacob J.  2008.  “Television’s Arrival in the Appalachian Mountains of the USA: An Oral History” [1950s-60s].  Media History 14, no. 1: 35-52.

Portelli, Alessandro.  2001.  “Crossing Cultures: An Interview with Alessandro Portelli.”  Interview by Betsy Brinson.  Oral History Review 28 (Winter/Spring): 87-113.  Italian Portelli did “path-breaking” oral history work in Harlan Co., Ky.  http://www.albany.edu/jmmh/vol2no1/lights.html.

Porterfield, Mannix.  2009.  A Man Called Shirley [biography, b. 1933].  New York: iUniverse.  263 pp.  Shirley Love was a radio announcer at WOAY, Oak Hill; anchor of the weekly TV show, “Saturday Night Wrestlin’; and served as a West Virginia State Senator, 1994-2008.

Powell, Douglas Reichert, et al.  2011.  “Roundtable Discussion of APPALACHIA: A History of Mountains and People” [PBS four-part documentary (2009), by Jamie Ross and Ross Spears].  Appalachian Journal 38, no. 2-3 (Winter/Spring): 246-274.  Cultural ecology, from the ground up / Douglas Reichert Powell -- Appalachian consilience / Geoffrey L. Buckley -- History of resilience is a history of resistance / Melissa Ooten -- Emphasizing connections and avoiding guilt: the rhetoric of Appalachia / Elizabeth Giddens -- Leaving home and the silencing of self / Roger Guy -- New ground and old friends: response to APPALACHIA / Amy Tipton Cortner -- Response to APPALACHIA: flattened terrain / Anna Creadick.

Pratt, David.  2012.  “Squidbillies and White Trash Stereotypes in the Corporate Postmodern South.”  Appalachian Journal 40, no. 1-2 (Fall 2012/Winter 2013): 94-110.  “Squidbillies is a cartoon aired late at night as part of Cartoon Network’s popular Adult Swim programming block.” Pratt references Jim Goad’s book, Redneck Manifesto (1997).

Price, Diane, with eleven other participants.  2000.  “A Camera Is a Gun: A Discussion of Stranger with a Camera” (Whitesburg, Ky.: Appalshop, 2000) [film by Elizabeth Barret based on the 1967 killing of Canadian filmmaker Hugh O’Connor by Kentuckian Hobart Ison].  Appalachian Journal 27 (Summer): 406-417.

Redlin, Meredith.  1997.  “Cultural Hierarchy on the “trail a fears”: The Drawings of Bruce Burris” [portfolio; cartoon collages of hillbilly stereotypes].  Southern Quarterly 36 (Fall): 125-136.

Reed, Maryanne.  2011.  “Fighting to Hear and Be Heard: The Founding of West Virginia Mountain Radio” [1981].  West Virginia History: A Journal of Regional Studies, new series, vol. 5, no. 1 (Spring): 1-23.  Pocahontas [County] Communications Cooperative; WVMR; organizer Gibbs Kinderman; today a member of Allegheny Mountain Radio network.

Reichert Powell, Douglas.  1997.  “Boston Common Minds Its Manners” [TV sitcom Boston Common].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 14 (Spring): 21-24.

Reichert Powell, Douglas.  2000.  “Looking Forward, Talking Back: The Politics of Appalachian Cultural Studies” [reviews Confronting Appalachian Stereotypes: Back Talk from an American Region, ed. G. Norman, D. Billings, and K. Ledford. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky (1999)].  Appalachian Journal 27 (Winter): 152-159.

Reichert Powell, Douglas.  2002.  “Truth or Consequences: The Blair Witch Project, Stranger with a Camera, & Regional Cultural Politics” [film images].  Appalachian Journal 29 (Fall 2001-Winter 2002): 138-143.

Reichert Powell, Douglas.  2007.  “‘Bluewashing’ the Mountaineer: A Recent Television Trend” [shifting stereotypes].  Appalachian Journal 34, no. 2 (Winter): 206-214.  Review essay of The Appalachians: America’s First and Last Frontier (Random House, 2004), by Mari-Lynn Evans, Robert Santelli, and Holly George-Warren; “My Name is Earl” (Fox Television sitcom, 2005-06); and “The Appalachians” (PBS three-part documentary, 2005).

Reichert Powell, Douglas.  2007.  Critical Regionalism: Connecting Politics and Culture in the American Landscape [literary and film examples; Johnson City, Tenn.].  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  260 pp.

Reid, Herbert.  [1999] 2001.  “Regional Consciousness and Political Imagination: The Appalachian Connection in an Anxious Nation” [The Kentucky Cycle (1993)].  In Back Talk from Appalachia: Confronting Stereotypes, ed. D. Billings, G. Norman, and K. Ledford, 313-326.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  Originally published as Confronting Appalachian Stereotypes.

Richardson, Leslie.  2004.  “Tennessee in Film.”  In A History of Tennessee Arts: Creating Traditions, Expanding Horizons, ed. C. West and M. Binnicker, 365-382.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Roberts, Mark A.  2010.  “The Performing Hillbilly: Redeeming Acts of a Regional Stereotype.”  Appalachian Journal 38, no. 1 (Fall): 78-90.  Cultural examples and interpretations of “rehillbillification--or acting hillbilly;” self deprecating identity performance; parades, festivals, heritage tourism.

Roggenkamp, Karen.  2008.  “ Seeing Inside the Mountains: Cynthia Rylant’s Appalachian Literature and the ‘Hillbilly’ Stereotype.”  The Lion and the Unicorn 32, no. 2 (April): 192-215.  Examines Rylant’s books, When I Was Young in the Mountains (1982),  The Relatives Came (1993), and Missing May (1992) against historical background as noble savages or white trash.

Ross, Jamie, and Ross Spears [filmmakers].  2012.  Letter to the Editor, “Response to ‘Roundtable Discussion of [2009 film] Appalachia: A History of Mountains and People’ (38, no. 2-3: 246-274).  Appalachian Journal 39, no. 1-2(Fall 2011/Winter 2012): 22-26.

Ross, Paul E.  1997.  Review essay of An Unseemly Man, by Larry Flynt and Kenneth Ross (Los Angeles: Dove Books, 1996).  Appalachian Journal 25 (Fall): 101-106.

Roy, L. Somi.  2003. “From Kentucky to Kunming: An Appalachia-Southwest China Filmmakers’ Exchange” [“Appalshop in China”].  Persimmon: Asian Literature, Arts, and Culture 4, no. 2 (Summer).  30 para.  http://www.persimmon-mag.com/summer2003/feature1.htm.

Satterwhite, Emily.  2005.  “‘That’s What They’re All Singing About’: Appalachian Heritage, Celtic Pride, and American Nationalism at the 2003 Smithsonian Folklife Festival.”  Appalachian Journal 32, no. 3 (Spring): 302-338.

Satterwhite, Emily.  2008.  “Imagining Home, Nation, World: Appalachia on the Mall.”  Journal of American Folklore 121, no. 479 (Winter): 10-34.  2002 Smithsonian annual folklife festival and visitors’ preconceptions.

Sauceman, Fred, and Charlie Daniel.  2005.  “Shop Talk from Rosy’s Diner” [interview with Charlie Daniel, editorial cartoonist for The Knoxville Journal].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 21, no. 1 (Spring): 20-22.

Sauceman, Fred.  2011.  “Good Afternoon, I’m Maxine Humphreys for Doughty-Stevens.”  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 26, no. 2 (Winter): 49-50.  Delivering the Local News since 1953 on AM 1340, WGRV, Greeneville, Greene County, Tenn.

Scarbrough, Meredith L.  1996.  “Virginia’s On-Ramp to the Information Superhighway” [Blacksburg Electronic Village].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 13 (Summer): 15-16.

Scott, A. O.  2010.  “From a Clan That Lives by Its Own Rules, a Tale Made for the Movies.”  New York Times, 5 May, 5(C).  587 words.  Movie review of ‘The Wild and Wonderful Whites of West Virginia’, “a documentary about an unapologetically dysfunctional family.”  See also: Rebecca R. Scott (2010).

Scott, Rebecca R.  2010.  Review essay of “The Wild and Wonderful Whites of West Virginia” [Boone Co.; documentary film, producer Johnny Knoxville, director Julien Nitzberg, Dickhouse Productions, 2010].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 16, no. 1-2 (Spring-Fall): 245-247.  “...depicts a year in the life of the extended family of Jesco White, who became internationally famous through the 1991 PBS documentary ‘The Dancing Outlaw’.”

Scott, Rebecca.  2009.  “The Sociology of Coal Hollow: Safety, Othering, and Representations of Inequality” [University of California Press (2006); photos and oral histories].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 15, no. 1-2 (Spring-Fall): 7-25.  Unintentional stereotyping; “tropes of Appalachian cultural marginalization.”

Seelye, Katharine Q.  2011.  “A Regional Radio Voice Threatened From Afar” [WMMT, Whitesburg, Ky.; federal cuts].  New York Times, 12 April, 12(A).  1,308 words.  This vibrant station reaches the mountain hollows of eastern Ky., southwestern Va., and southern W.Va.

Selby, David.  2002.  “The Mythology of West Virginia” [address by actor and Morgantown, W.Va. native Selby].  Traditions: A Journal of West Virginia Folk Culture and Educational Awareness 8: 42-44.

Shapiro, Henry D.  2006.  “Appalachian Myth” [Appalachian “otherness”; local color; Appalachia as myth/image and it’s historical sequence].  In The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture, Vol. 4: Myth, Manners, and Memory, ed. C. Wilson, 196-198.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Shelby, Anne.  [1999] 2001.  “The ‘R’ Word: What’s So Funny (and Not So Funny) About Redneck Jokes.”  In Back Talk from Appalachia: Confronting Stereotypes, ed. D. Billings, G. Norman, and K. Ledford, 153-160.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  Originally published as Confronting Appalachian Stereotypes.

Sherman, Sharon R.  2000.  “Ballad, Legend, and Film: The Representation of Frankie Silver” [video review of The Ballad of Frankie Silver (Davenport Films, 1996)].  Journal of American Folklore 113 (Spring): 207-210.

Skeen, Tim.  2006.  “Stereotypical Images Prevail” [review of WGBH/Frontline’s “Country Boys,” 2005 documentary, Prestonsburg, Ky.].  Appalachian Heritage 34, no. 2 (Spring): 87-89.  See also editor George Brosi’s contrasting of “Country Boys” with media coverage of the Sago mine disaster, “This Side of the Mountain,” 3-4.

Smith, Al.  2012.  Kentucky Cured: Fifty Years in Kentucky Journalism.  Charleston, S.C.: History Press.  222 pp.

Smith, Dina.  2004.  “Cultural Studies’ Misfit: White Trash Studies.”  Mississippi Quarterly 57 (Summer): 369-387.

Sommers, Joseph Michael.  2012.  “Crooked Appalachia: The Laughter of the Melungeon Witches in Mike Mignola’s Hellboy: The Crooked Man [2010].  In Comics and the U.S. South, ed. B. Costello and Q. Whitted, 214-241.  Jackson: University Press of Mississippi.

Stanley, Tal.  1999.  Review essay of Confronting Appalachian Stereotypes: Back Talk from an American Region, ed. D. Billings, G. Norman, and K. Ledford  (University Press of Kentucky, 1999).  Journal of Appalachian Studies 5 (Fall): 269-274.

Stewart, Kathleen.  2002.  “Scenes of Life/Kentucky Mountains” [commentary on photo essay].  Photographs by Anya E. Liftig.  Public Culture 14 (Spring): 349-359.

Stewart, Polly.  2000.  “Review Notes on The Ballad of Frankie Silver” [classroom teaching tool notes; 1996 documentary film].  North Carolina Folk Journal 47 (Winter/Spring): 73-74.

Suarez, Ernest.  1995.  “‘Deliverance’: Dickey’s Original Screen Play” [special issue: Southern Novelists on Stage and Screen].  Southern Quarterly 33 (Winter-Spring): 161-169.

Suderman, Peter.  2011.  “Tucker & Dale Role-Switch Slasher Spoof” [film].  Washington Times, 30 September, 3(D).  619 words.  “...the movie offers a hillbilly-friendly revisionist take on the hick-horror encounter -- think The Texas Chainsaw Massacre as told by Leatherface, if Leatherface were a guileless hick.”

Sullivan, John Jeremiah.  2002.  “13 Essential Southern Documentaries” [film review of Dancing Outlaw (1991), directed by Jacob Young].  Oxford American Magazine 42 (Winter): Southern Movie Issue.

Sulzberger, A. G.  2011.  “In Small Towns, Gossip Moves to the Web, and Turns Vicious” [Ark., Ky.; social media website, Topix].  New York Times, 20 September, 1(A).  1,505 words.

Tanner, Borgon.  2004.  “Thursday Night at the Wetzel Republican” [1940s letterpress production of weekly newspaper; New Martinsville].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 30 (Spring): 46-51.

Tavernise, Sabrina.  2011.  “Tackling the Problems of Appalachia, Theatrically.”  New York Times, 15 May, 23(A).  778 words.  Harlan Co., Ky.; Southeast Kentucky Community and Technical College professor Robert Gipe’s “Higher Ground” series of community-lifting plays.

Thesing, William B., and Theda Wrede, ed.  2009.  The Way We Read James Dickey: Critical Approaches for the Twenty-First Century.  Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.  261 pp.  Nineteen essays, including: Introduction: From dust to deliverance / William B. Thesing and Theda Wrede -- Adherence to Propp: James Dickey’s Deliverance in novel and film / Cherry Levin -- James Dickey and his reader: the movement from Drowning to deliverance / Randall Smith -- Nature and gender in James Dickey’s Deliverance: an ecofeminist reading / Theda Wrede -- The buggering hillbilly and the buddy movie: male sexuality in Deliverance / Ed Madden -- Ed Gentry’s “man crush”: idolatry, power, and love in James Dickey’s Deliverance / Jennifer Schell -- “How willing to let anything be done”: James Dickey’s feminist praxis / Jennie Lightweis-Goff.

Thomas, Jeannie B., and Doug Enders.  2000.  “Bluegrass and ‘White Trash’: A Case Study Concerning the Name ‘Folklore’ and Class Bias.”  Journal of Folklore Research 37 (January-April): 23-52.

Thompson, Charles D., Jr.  2004.  “Going Quietly: The Making of a Documentary Project among the Old German Baptist Brethren in the Virginia Blue Ridge” [agricultural change, Franklin Co.; insider/outsider mistrust].  In CrossRoads: A Southern Culture Annual, ed. Ted Olson, 37-60.  Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press.

Thompson, Jerry.  1997.  “Hillbilly Humor.”  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 14 (Spring): 12-13.

Tincher, Robert B.  1980.  “Night Comes to the Chromosomes: Inbreeding and Population Genetics in Southern Appalachia.”  Central Issues in Anthropology 2, no. 1 (March): 27-49.  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1525/cia.1980.2.1.27/pdf.

Tucker, Bruce, and Priscilla L. Walton.  2006.  “From ‘General’s Daughter’ to ‘Coal Miner’s’ Daughter’: Spinning and Counter-Spinning Jessica Lynch” [2003 Iraqi capture and rescue drama]. Canadian Review of American Studies 36, no. 3: 311-330.

Tuttle, Steve.  2008.  “The Voters of Appalachia … A - Are Hicks, B - Are Hillbillies, C - Are Rednecks, D - Don’t Appreciate Where You’re Going With This.”  Newsweek, 7 July: 40-42.  National focus; presidential primary season.  http://www.newsweek.com/id/143759.

Urbane Appalachia.  2008.  Special issue, Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 24, no. 1 (Spring/Summer): 1-72.  Articles on non-rural aspects: art, music, cities, drama, local-color writer John Fox, Jr., wine-growing, the Biltmore and the Greenbrier.

Vaughan, Don Rodney.  2004.  “Why The Andy Griffith Show Is Important to Popular Cultural Studies” [1960-68; values; modeled on Mt. Airy, N.C.].  Journal of Popular Culture 38 (November): 397-423.

Vollers, Maryanne.  2006.  Lone Wolf: Eric Rudolph: Murder, Myth, and the Pursuit of an American Outlaw [N.C.; five-year-fugitive bomber and folk legend figure;  Nantahala forest wilderness].  New York: HarperCollins.  356 pp.

Von Doviak, Scott.  2005.  Hick Flicks: The Rise and Fall of Redneck Cinema [“comprehensive study of the hixploitation genre”: good old boys; road movies; rural beasts; filmography, 193-198].  Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland.  222 pp.

Waite, Jason.  2012.  “Poor as Job’s Turkey: Back to the Land as a Rhetoric of Authenticity in Foxfire’s Appalachia.”  Chap. 7 in Mediated Images of the South: The Portrayal of Dixie in Popular Culture, ed. A. Slade, D. Givens-Carroll, and A. Narro, 123-146.  Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books.

Waller, Altina.  1995.  “Feuding in Appalachia: Evolution of a Cultural Stereotype.”  In Appalachia in the Making: The Mountain South in the Nineteenth Century, ed. M. Pudup, D. Billings, and A. Waller, 347-376.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Waller, Altina.  2012.  “On the Whole, Costner is Purtier Than Devil Anse.”  Appalachian Journal 40, no. 1-2 (Fall 2012/Winter 2013): 21-23.  Reprint of an interview by Christopher John Farley with historian Altina Waller, “How Realistic is Hatfields and McCoys?” (which premiered on The History Channel in May, 2012), published by The Wall Street Journal blog “Speakeasy.”

Wampler, Angela Mallicote.  1996.  “The Internet Debate” [Blacksburg Electronic Village].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 13 (Summer): 18-19.

Ward, John JJ.  2004.  “The First Picture Show in Chapmanville” [theater originally a feed store; 1930s Logan Co.].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 30 (Winter): 30-31.

Ward, Ken, Jr.  2011.  “Sustained Outrage: Ken Ward Jr. Stayed Home To Make A Difference” [W.Va.].  Interview by Brent Cunningham.  Columbia Journalism Review 50, no. 4 (November/December): 90-94.  Ward is an award-winning journalist for the Charleston Gazette who has [un]covered the coal industry for more than 20 years, beginning with the Pittston coal strike (1989), and also manages a blog, “The Coal Tattoo,” since 2009.  http://www.cjr.org/feature/sustained_outrage.php?page=all.

Whisnant, David E.  2003.  “Sodom Laurel Again: A Response to Malcolm Wilson and Other Reviewers of Sodom Laurel Album” (by Rob Amberg, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002) [reviewed in Journal of Appalachian Studies 9 (Spring): 257-258].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 9 (Fall): 450-458.

Whitaker, Kayla Rae.  2010.  “Friends in Loud Places: The Inspiration of YO! MTV Raps” [eastern Ky.].  In Motif: Come What May, an Anthology of Writings about Chance, ed. M. Worthington, 51-54.  Louisville, Ky.: Motes Books.

White, John.  2007. “Myth and Movie Making: Karl Brown and the Making of Stark Love.”  Film History 19, no. 1: 49-57.  Docudrama (1927) about N.C. Appalachian mountain people.

Whited, Lana.  2005.  “Hollywood Wants Hicks” [Reality-TV revival of 1960s sitcom, The Beverly Hillbillies].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 21, no. 1 (Spring): 8.

Williamson, J. W.  1994.  Southern Mountaineers in Silent Films: Plot Synopses of Movies About Moonshining, Feuding and Other Mountain Topics, 1904-1929.  Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland.  320 pp.

Williamson, J. W.  1995.  Hillbillyland: What the Movies Did to the Mountains and What the Mountains Did to the Movies.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  325 pp.

Williamson, Jerry Wayne.  1995.  “A Mirror Wise-cracked: Filthy and Free, the Hillbilly Image Mirrors the Best and the Worst in Us.”  Special Section: Image of the South.  Southern Exposure 23 (Spring): 20-24.

Williamson, Jerry.  Interview by Patricia Beaver and Helen Lewis.  2000.  “A Cold Day in Hell: An Interview with Jerry Williamson” [founding editor of Appalachian Journal].  Appalachian Journal 28 (Fall): 78-115.

Wilson, Darlene.  1995.  “The Felicitous Convergence of Mythmaking and Capital Accumulation: John Fox Jr. and the Formation of An(Other) Almost-White American Underclass.”  Journal of Appalachian Studies 1 (Fall): 5-44.

Wilson, Darlene.  [1999] 2001.  “A Judicious Combination of Incident and Psychology: John Fox Jr. and the Southern Mountaineer Motif.”  In Back Talk from Appalachia: Confronting Stereotypes, ed. D. Billings, G. Norman, and K. Ledford, 98-118.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  Originally published as Confronting Appalachian Stereotypes.

Wilson, Joe.  2001.  “Radio and the Blue Ridge” [1920s].  In Country Music Annual 2001, ed. C. Wolfe and J. Akenson, 147-60.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.

Wilson, Norma.  2005.  “Careful Where You Cast for Hillbillies” [CBS attempts The Real Beverly Hillbillies as Reality TV].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 21, no. 1 (Spring): 5-7.

Woodside, Jane Harris.  1997.  “Twisted Humor: The Cartoons of Anthony Feathers.”  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 14 (Spring): 27-29.

Wray, Matt, and Annalee Newitz, ed.  1997.  White Trash: Race and Class in America [essays].  New York: Routledge.  272 pp.

Wright, Jack.  1997.  “Electronic Visions of a Prodigal Son: The Video Works of Gurney Norman.”  The Iron Mountain Review 13 (Spring): 24-27.

Wright, Jack.  1997.  “How Monochrome Was Their Valley.”  Part 1 of  “Hollywood Does Antebellum Appalachia and Gets It (Half) Right: The Journey of August King”.  Appalachian Journal 24 (Winter): 192-204.

Young, Jacob.  1994.  “Filmmaker Jacob Young.”  Interview by  Thomas E. Douglass.  Appalachian Journal 21 (Spring): 304-317.

Yousaf, Nahem.  2008.  “The Local and the Global: Gina Nahai and the Taking Up of Serpents and Stereotypes.”  Journal of American Studies 41, no. 2: 307-330.  Discusses the novel Sunday’s Silence (2001).