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Health and Medicine

Folk medicine, midwifery, herbalists and granny doctors, diet and nutrition, black lung, AIDS, cancer, clinics, obstacles to community health care including cultural and language barriers, and drug abuse (including methamphetamine).

Abbott-Jamieson, Susan.  2005.  “Mediating Perceptions of Parent/Child Co-sleeping in Eastern Kentucky.”  Chap. 5 in Appalachian Cultural Competency: A Guide for Medical, Mental Health, and Social Service Professionals, ed. S. Keefe, 121-141.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Ahern, Melissa M., Michael Hendryx, Jamison Conley, Evan Fedorko, Alan Ducatman, and Keith J. Zullig.  2011.  “The Association between Mountaintop Mining and Birth Defects among Live Births in Central Appalachia, 1996–2003” [tables, map].  Environmental Research 111, no. 6 (August): 838-846.  (See also: Zullig and Hendryx, 2011).

Alkadry, Mohamad G., Christina Wilson, and Doris Nicholas.  2005.  “Stroke Awareness Among Rural Residents: The Case of West Virginia” [1,114 mailed questionnaires]. Social Work in Health Care 42, no. 2: 73-92.

Almond, Greenbrier.  2012.  Stories of a West Virginia Doctor’s Son [M.D.; b. 1948; Upshur Co.]. McClain Printing Co.  116 pp.  The author has worked for many years as a psychiatrist at the Veterans Administration Medical Center, Clarksburg, W.Va.  See also: The Stories of a West Virginia Doctor (1995-1997), by Dr. Harold Almond, the author’s father.

Almond, Harold D., and Greenbrier Almond.  1997-2005.  The Stories of a West Virginia Doctor.  Parsons, W.Va: McClain Printing Co.  Vol. 1. [without special title] -- vol. 2. Tender loving care: stories of Harold Almond, MD [1915-1999], as told to Greenbrier Almond, MD.

Amjad, Hassan.  2005.  Folk Medicine of Appalachia: A Vanishing Tradition.  Beckley, W.Va.: H. Amjad.  340 pp.

Amjad, Hassan.  2005.  Life & Thymes of an Appalachian Herbalist [Clarence Frederick Gray, also known as Catfish Gray; W.Va.].  Beckley, W.Va.: H. Amjad. 75 pp.

Anglin, Mary K.  [1999] 2001.  “Stories of AIDS in Appalachia.”  In Back Talk from Appalachia: Confronting Stereotypes, ed. D. Billings, G. Norman, and K. Ledford, 267-280.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  Originally published as Confronting Appalachian Stereotypes.

Appalachian Leadership Coalition on Cancer (ALIC).  1995.  Sowing Seeds in the Mountains: Community-Based Coalitions for Cancer Prevention and Control.  Edited by Richard Couto and others, with photographs by Earl Dotter.  Washington: National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute.  343 pp.

Badagliacco, Joanna M., Carey D. Ruiz.  2006.  “Impoverished Appalachia and Kentucky Genomes: What Is at Stake? How do Feminists Reply?” [eugenics].  New Genetics and Society 25, no. 2 (August): 209-226.

Baird, Nancy Disher.  2007.  Healing Kentucky: Medicine in the Bluegrass State [adult reader].  New Books for New Readers series.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  55 pp.

Baldwin, Fred D.  1999.  “Access to Care: Overcoming the Rural Physician Shortage” [Ky., Tenn.].  Appalachia: Journal of the Appalachian Regional Commission 32 (May-August): 8-15.

Barcus, Holly R., and Timothy Hare.  2007.  “Healthcare Utilization, Deprivation, and Heart-Related Disease in Kentucky” [tables; shaded county outline maps; southeastern Ky. stands out].  Southeastern Geographer 47, no. 2 (November): 202-221.

Barnett, Elizabeth, and others.  1998.  Heart Disease in Appalachia: An Atlas of County Economic Conditions, Mortality, and Medical Care Resources.  Morgantown, W.Va.: Prevention Research Center, West Virginia University.  93 pp.

Barney, Sandra Lee.  1999.  “Maternalism and the Promotion of Scientific Medicine During the Industrial Transformation of Appalachia, 1880-1930.”  NWSA Journal: A Publication of the National Women’s Studies Association 11 (Fall): 68-92.

Barney, Sandra Lee.  2000.  Authorized to Heal: Gender, Class, and the Transformation of Medicine in Central Appalachia, 1880-1930 [Ky., Va., W.Va.; women in medicine: physicians, nurses, midwives].  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  222 pp.

Barney, Sandra.  1996.  “Bringing Modern Medicine to the Mountains: Scientific Medicine and the Transformation of Health Care in Southern West Virginia, 1880-1910.”  West Virginia History 55 (1996): 110-126.

Bauer, William M, and Bruce Growick.  2003.  “Rehabilitation Counseling in Appalachian America” [profiles culture, employment opportunities, media impact, health services, insurance dilemma].  Journal of Rehabilitation 69, no. 3: 18-24.

Beck, Rubye W., Caroline R. Jijon, and Joellen B. Edwards.  1996.  “The Relationships Among Gender, Perceived Financial Barriers to Care, and Health-Status in a Rural Population.”  Journal of Rural Health 12 (Summer): 188-196.

Behringer, Bruce, and Koyamangalath Krishnan.  2011.  “Understanding the Role of Religion in Cancer Care in Appalacha.”  Southern Medical Journal 104, no. 4 (April): 295-296.

Behringer, Bruce.  2000.  “Creating Community Partnerships” [rural health outreach; East Tennessee State University, and Johnson and Hawkins Cos.; Kellogg Foundation grant].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 17 (Spring): 20-23.

Bishop, Bill, and Roberto Gallardo.  2011.  “The Geography of Disability” [Social Security disability beneficiaries; rural concentration].  Daily Yonder, 30 November.  730 words, plus tables of states and counties, and a shaded county outline map of the U.S., “Americans Receiving Disability.”  Counties in Appalachian Va., W.Va., and Ky. ranked with the highest percentage of working age disabled (2009).  http://www.dailyyonder.com/geography-disability/2011/11/29/3619.

Blakeney, Anne B.  2005.  “Educating Culturally Sensitive Health Professionals in Appalachia.”  Chap. 7 in Appalachian Cultural Competency: A Guide for Medical, Mental Health, and Social Service Professionals, ed. S. Keefe, 161-178.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Blakeney, Anne B.  2006.  “Health Care in Appalachia” [with suggested readings].  In A Handbook to Appalachia: An Introduction to the Region, ed. G. Edwards, J. Asbury, and R. Cox, 101-118.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Bowman, Rex.  2005.  “ Prescription for Crime” [OxyContin abuse, Tazewell Co., Va.; mainstream media view].  Time, 28 March, 50-51.

Burkett, Gary L., Richard P. Mulcahy, and Pamela M. Zahorik, section editors.  2006.  “Health” [signed entries].  In Encyclopedia of Appalachia, ed. R. Abramson and J. Haskell, 1631-1677 (with introductory essay, 1631-1636).  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Butterworth, Melinda, Korine Kolivras, Lawrence Grossman, and Kerry Redican.  2010.  “Knowledge, Perceptions, and Practices: Mosquito-borne Disease Transmission in Southwest Virginia, USA.”  Southeastern Geographer 50, no. 3 (Fall): 366-385.  Wise and Tazewell Cos.; West Nile Virus and La Crosse encephalitis.  Maps, tables.

Caraway, Crystal S., and Anthony Cavender.  2004.  “Vernacular Sexual Beliefs and Practices among Appalachian Youth” [focus group based].  Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 60, no. 3: 96-127.  Appendices: discussion topics, and interview data.

Casto, James E.  1994.  “Dr. Louise: A Kentucky Pioneer” [Morehead, Ky.].  Appalachia 27 (Summer): 24-29.

Casto, James E.  1996.  “Rx for the Rural Health-Care Shortage.” Appalachia: Journal of the Appalachian Regional Commission 29 (September-December): 22-27.  W.Va. and Tenn. medical students’ service at rural clinics.

Casto, James E.  1997.  “Challenging Cancer at the Grass Roots” [ALIC: Appalachian Leadership Initiative on Cancer].  Appalachia: Journal of the Appalachian Regional Commission 30 (Jan.-Apr.): 20-23.

Cavender, Anthony, and Steve Crowder.  2002.  “White-Livered Widders and Bad-Blooded Men: Folk Illness and Sexual Disorder in Southern Appalachia.”  Journal of the History of Sexuality 11 (October): 637-649.

Cavender, Anthony P.  2003.  Folk Medicine in Southern Appalachia [authoritative history].  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  266 pp.

Cavender, Anthony, Vivian Gonzales Gladson, Jorja Cummings, and Michele Hammet.  2011.  “Curanderismo in Appalachia: The Use of Remedios Caseros among Latinos in Northeastern Tennessee.”  Journal of Appalachian Studies 17, no. 1-2 (Spring-Fall): 144-167.  Examines Latino traditional medical beliefs and practices, and discusses their similarity with traditional Appalachian folk remedies.  Tables list medicinal plants, and animal substances.

Cavender, Anthony.  1996.  “Local Unorthodox Healers of Cancer in the Appalachian South.”  Journal of Community Health 21 (October): 359-374.

Cavender, Anthony.  2005.  “A Midwife’s Commonplace Book.”  Appalachian Journal 32, no. 2 (Winter): 182-190.  Cora Reeves; 1898-1941; Southwestern Va. and Western N.C. folk medicine.

Cavender, Anthony.  2006.  “Folk Medical Uses of Plant Foods in Southern Appalachia, United States.”  Journal of Ethnopharmacology 108, no. 1 (November): 74-84.

Chase, Charlotte F.  2005.  “Creating Cultural Competence among Appalachian Nursing Students.”  Chap. 6 in Appalachian Cultural Competency: A Guide for Medical, Mental Health, and Social Service Professionals, ed. S. Keefe, 143-160.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Chase, Nan.  2004.  “Ray Hicks: The Mysterious Healer” [legendary storyteller is also a faith healer; warts].  Appalachian Heritage 32 (Spring): 38-45.

Cockerham, Anne Z., and Arlene W. Keeling.  2012.  Rooted in the Mountains, Reaching to the World: Stories of Nursing and Midwifery at Kentucky’s Frontier School, 1939-1989.  Louisville, Ky.: Butler Books.  160 pp.  The Frontier Graduate School of Midwifery, begun by Mary Breckinridge in 1925 as the Frontier Nursing Service (later called the Frontier School of Midwifery and Family Nursing), is known today as Frontier Nursing University.

Cooper, E. R.  2012.  “Memories of a Country Doctor” [b. Gilmer Co.; 1878-1976], as told to Willa Jane Loftis, granddaughter.  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 38, no. 3 (Fall): 50-55.

Cordial, Paige, Ruth Riding-Malon, and Hilary Lips.  2012.  “The Effects of Mountaintop Removal Coal Mining on Mental Health, Well-Being, and Community Health in Central Appalachia.”  Ecopsychology  4, no. 3 (September): 201-208.  “High rates of unemployment and poverty and lower rates of educational attainment....compound the stressors created by MTR.”

Correll, Jennifer A., Peggy Cantrell, and William T. Dalton.  2011.  “Integration of Behavioral Health Services in a Primary Care Clinic Serving Rural Appalachia: Reflections on a Clinical Experience” [East Tenn.; depression].  Families, Systems, & Health 29, no. 4 (December): 291-302.

Costello, E. Jane, Elizabeth M. Z. Farmer, and Adrian Angold. “ Psychiatric Disorders Among American Indian and White Youth in Appalachia: The Great Smoky Mountains Study.”  American Journal of Public Health 87 (May): 827-832.

Cottrell, Lesley, Marianna Footo-Linz, and Melissa Atkins.  2006.  “Childhood Asthma and Treatment Options within Appalachia: Parent Perspectives” [W.Va. rates increasing while national rates plateau; interviews with 37 parents; Kanawha, Lincoln and Cabell Cos.; table].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 12, no. 1 (Spring): 40-57.

Couto, Richard A., Nancy K. Simpson, and Gale Harris, ed.  1994.   Sowing Seeds in the Mountains: Community-Based Coalitions for  Cancer Prevention and Control.  NIH Publication, no. 94-3779.   Washington, D.C.: Appalachian Leadership Initiative on  Cancer, National Cancer Institute.  343 pp.

Cozzo, David.  2003.  “Beyond Tall Tales: Ray Hicks and Mountain Herbalism” [folk illnesses; plant remedies].  Appalachian Journal 30 (Summer): 284-301.

Crellin, John K., and Jane Philpott.  [1990] 1997.  A Reference Guide to Medicinal Plants:.Herbal Medicine Past and Present [based on the practice of herbalist A.L. "Tommie" Bass].  Durham: Duke University Press. 551 pp.  (Previously published as vol. 2 of Herbal Medicine Past and Present)

Crellin, John K., Jane Philpott, and A. L. Tommie Bass.  [1990] 1997.  Trying to Give Ease: Tommie Bass and the Story of Herbal Medicine.  Durham: Duke University Press.  335 pp.  (Previously published as vol. 1 of Herbal Medicine Past and Present)

Davis, Joel.  1996.  “Faith and Medicine” [ETSU medical school curriculum].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 13 (Winter): 15-17.

Denham, Sharon A.  1996.  “Family Health in a Rural Appalachian Ohio County” [Meigs Co.].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 2 (Fall): 299-310.

Denham, Sharon A., Michael G. Meyer, Mary A. Toborg, Man J. Mande.  2004.  “Providing Health Education to Appalachia Populations” [52 focus groups in 10 states: emphasis on family, and central role of women].  Holistic Nursing Practice 18 (November/December): 293-301.

Denham, Sharon A., Michael G. Meyer, and Mary A. Toborg.  2004.  “Tobacco Cessation in Adolescent Females in Appalachian Communities.”  Family and Community Health 27, no. 2: 170-181.

Derickson, Alan.  1996.  “The Role of the United Mine Workers in the Prevention of Work-Related Respiratory Disease, 1890-1968.”  In The United Mine Workers of America: A Model of Industrial Solidarity?, ed. J. Laslett, 224-238.  University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Derickson, Alan.  1998.  Black Lung: Anatomy of a Public Health Disaster [history].  Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.  237 pp.

Dick, David.  2008.  A Journal for Lalie: Living Through Prostate Cancer.  North Middletown, Ky.: Plum Lick Publishing.  331 pp.

Dickinson, W. Calvin.  2009.  “‘To Help Bring Health to This Mountain’: Dr. May Cravath Wharton, the ‘Doctor Woman’ of Cumberland County, Tennessee” [1873-1959; Pleasant Hill].  Journal of East Tennessee History 81: 3-18.

Dockery, Bill.  2000.  “Telemedicine: A Marriage of Medicine & Technology” [University of Tennessee outreach: Tenn., N.C., Ky., Va.].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 17 (Spring): 26-28.

Downey, Laura, and Chike Anyaegbunam.  2010.  “Your Lives Through Your Eyes: Rural Appalachian Youth Identify Community Needs and Assets Through the Use of Photovoice” [Morgan Co., Ky.].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 16, no. 1-2 (Spring-Fall): 42-60.  High school students documented and interpreted perceptions of community health, including health-related stereotypes.

Efaw, Jennifer.  1998.  “High Hopes at Colin Anderson Center” [Pleasants Co. home for mentally retarded children, 1929-1998].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 24 (Winter): 52-61.

Erichsen-Brown, Charlotte.  [1979] 1989.  Medicinal and Other Uses of North American Plants: A Historical Survey with Special Reference to the Eastern Indian Tribes.  New York: Dover Publications.  512 pp.  Reprint.  Originally published as Use of Plants for the Past 500 Years, Aurora, Ontario, Canada: Breezy Creeks Press.

Esch, Laura, and Michael Hendryx.  2011.  “Chronic Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Mountaintop Mining Areas of Central Appalachian States.”  Journal of Rural Health 27, no. 4 (Fall): 350-357.  Mortality rates for counties in four states, 1999-2006, were linked with county coal mining data.

Ettinger, Laura E.  1999.  “Nurse-Midwives, the Mass Media, and the Politics of Maternal Health Care in the United States, 1925-1955” [Ky.; Frontier Nursing Service].  Nursing Health Review 7: 47-66.

Fedis, Tara Surber, Keith J. Zullig, and Laura Lander.  2010.  “The West Virginia Prescription Drug Abuse Quitline” [1-800-WV-QUITT].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 26, no. 1 (Summer): 7-8.

Felton, Tom.  2008.  “A Life Well Spent: ‘Doc Pete’ of Parsons” [Tucker Co.].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 34, no. 3 (Fall): 40-45.  Dr. Guy H. Michael, Jr., fourth-generation physician; b. 1925.

Ferketich, Amy K., et al.  2010.  “Clean Indoor Air Ordinance Coverage in the Appalachian Region of the United States.”  American Journal of Public Health 100, no. 7 (July): 1313-1318.  Four tables.  “Of the 332 communities included in the analysis, fewer than 20% had adopted a comprehensive workplace, restaurant, or bar ordinance.”

Frank, Laura, Susan Thomas, and Robert Sherborne.  1999.  “Mystery Illnesses” [at Oak Ridge, Tenn., and 12 other nuclear weapons sites].  Southern Exposure 27 (Fall): 40-44.  Reprinted from The Tennessean, Nashville.

Friedrich, M. J.  2002.  “Program Aims to Reduce Cancer Burden in Appalachia” [Appalachia Cancer Network].  Journal of the National Cancer Institute 94 (no. 16): 1189-1191.

Gainer, Patrick W.  2008.  “Folk Cures.”  In Witches, Ghosts, and Signs: Folklore of the Southern Appalachians, comp. P. Gainer, 100-111.  2nd ed.  Morgantown: West Virginia University Press.  100 common medicines and brief uses.

Gardner, Teresa, Paul Gavaza, Paula Meade, and Donna M. Adkins.  2012.  “Delivering Free Healthcare to Rural Central Appalachia Population: The Case of the Health Wagon” [southwest Va.].  Rural and Remote Health 12, no. 1 (January-March): 2035.  http://www.rrh.org.au/.

Gatz, Jennifer L., Graham D. Rowles, and Suzanne L. Tyas.  2004.  “Health Disparities in Rural Appalachia” [Eastern Ky.; many factors detailed].  Chap. 15 in  Critical Issues in Rural Health, ed. N. Glasgow, L. Morton, and N. Johnson, 183-194.  Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing.

Gavaza, Paul,  Wenfei Yan, and Jennifer Campbell.  2012.  “Main Challenges Facing the Pharmaceutical Sector in Buchanan County, Virginia: A Pilot Study.”  Rural and Remote Health 12, no. 4 (October-December): 2125.  Drug abuse; doctor shopping.  http://www.rrh.org.au/.

Geronimus, Arline T., John Bound, and Timothy A. Waidmann.  1999.  “Poverty, Time, and Place: Variation in Excess Mortality Across Selected US Populations, 1980-1990” [including Detroit, Chicago, Appalachian Ky., northeastern Ala., western N.C.].  Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 53 (June): 325-334.

Gesler, Wilbert M., et al.  2006.  “Exploring Inequalities in Health Care Coverage by Degree of Rurality in Western North Carolina” [12 counties; tables; maps].  Southeastern Geographer 46, no. 1 (May): 97-120.

Gish, Shirley.  1999.  Country Doctor: The Story of Dr. Claire Louise Caudill [b. 1931; Morehead, Ky.; interviews].  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  168 pp.

Glover, Douglas, Marie A. Abate, and Arthur Jacknowitz. 2008.  From the Everyday to the Extraordinary: West Virginia Pharmacists’ Stories [history; biography].  Morgantown, W.Va: D. Glover.  285 pp.

Goan, Melanie Beals.  2003.  “Establishing Their Place in the Dynasty: Sophonisba and Mary Breckinridge’s Paths to Public Service” [privileged upbringing; Mary, 1881-1965, founded the Frontier Nursing Service, 1925, Leslie Co., Ky.].  Register of the Kentucky Historical Society 101 (Winter/Spring): 45-73.

Goan, Melanie Beals.  2008.  Mary Breckinridge: The Frontier Nursing Service & Rural Health in Appalachia [1881-1965].  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  348 pp.

Goins, R. Turner, S. Melinda Spencer, and Kimberly Williams.  2011.  “Lay Meanings of Health among Rural Older Adults in Appalachia” [W.Va.].  Journal of Rural Health 27, no. 1 (Winter): 13–20.  Subjects were 60 or older.  Discussions included 4 themes: health as a value; dimensions of life; holistic nature of health; and health care use and adherence.

Gore, Prasanna, and Suresh Madhavan.  1999.  “Predictors of Childhood Immunization Completion in a Rural Population” [W.Va.].  Social Science & Medicine 48 (April): 1011-1027.

Graham, M. Anthony.  1996.  “Telepsychiatry in Appalachia.”  American Behavioral Scientist 39 (March-April): 602-615.  Telecommunication in rural mental health services.

Gross, Carol.  2005.  “To Listen Is to Learn: The Social Worker in Rural Appalachia.”  Chap. 3 in Appalachian Cultural Competency: A Guide for Medical, Mental Health, and Social Service Professionals, ed. S. Keefe, 75-88.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Halperin, Rhoda H., and Jennifer Reiter-Purtill.  2005.  “‘Nerves’ in Rural and Urban Appalachia” [folk term; anxiety and depression].  Chap. 12 in Appalachian Cultural Competency: A Guide for Medical, Mental Health, and Social Service Professionals, ed. S. Keefe, 265-284.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Halverson, Joel.  2004.  “An Analysis of Disparities in Health Status and Access to Health Care in the Appalachian Region” [mortality, morbidity, maps].  Washington, D.C.: Appalachian Regional Commission, Online Resource Center.  281 pp.  http://www.arc.gov.

Halverson, Joel A., Lin Ma, E. James Harner, Robert Q. Hanham, and Valerie E. Braham.  2004.  Adult Obesity in Appalachia: An Atlas of Geographic Disparities [county outline maps, tables].  Morgantown: West Virginia University, Prevention Research Center, Center for Healthy Communities.  121 pp.

Harman, Patricia.  2008.  The Blue Cotton Gown: A Midwife’s Memoir.  Boston, Mass.: Beacon Press.  290 pp.  W.Va., women’s health clinic.

Harman, Patricia.  2009.  “Dorothy’s Urn” [funeral urn; memoir].  Appalachian Heritage 37, no. 1 (Winter): 46-50.

Harris, Gardiner.  1999.  “Dust, Deception and Death” [black lung disease].  Southern Exposure 27 (Fall): 34-39.  Reprinted from the Courier-Journal, Louisville, Ky.

Hartley, Lou Ann.  2002.  “Health Perceptions and Health Status Measurement among Rural Appalachian Elders.”  Journal of Appalachian Studies 8 (Fall): 284-298.

Hatfield, Gabrielle.  2004.  Encyclopedia of Folk Medicine: Old World and New World Traditions [Britain, Ireland, North America; approx. 230 topics, with references]. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO.  392 pp.

Hendryx, Michael, and Melissa M Ahern.  2009.  “Mortality in Appalachian Coal Mining Regions: The Value of Statistical Life Lost” [1979-2005].  Public Health Reports 124, no. 4 (July-August): 541-550.  Conclusion: “The human cost of the Appalachian coal mining economy outweighs its economic benefits.”

Hendryx, Michael, Leah Wolfe, Juhua Luo, and Bo Webb.  2012.  “Self-Reported Cancer Rates in Two Rural Areas of West Virginia with and without Mountaintop Coal Mining.”  Journal Of Community Health 37, no. 2 (April): 320-327.  Door-to-door interviews; 773 adults.

Hennen, John.  2009.  “1199 Comes to Appalachia” [unionizing 1970s hospital workers at Cabell-Huntington, and Highlands Regional, W.Va.].  In Culture, Class, and Politics in Modern Appalachia: Essays in Honor of Ronald L. Lewis, ed. J. Egolf, K. Fones-Wolf, and L. Martin, 224-250.  Morgantown: West Virginia University Press.

Higgins, James.  2010.  “‘With Every Accompaniment of Ravage and Agony’: Pittsburgh and the Influenza Epidemic of 1918–1919.”  Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 134, no. 3 (July): 263-286.

Hoffman, Carl.  2000.  “Saving Young Lives” [Ala.; emergency helicopter Life Saver program].  Appalachia: Journal of the Appalachian Regional Commission 33 (May-August): 14-19.

Holzman, David C.  2011.  “Mountaintop Removal Mining.”  Environmental Health Perspectives 119, no. 11 (November): A476-A483.  Photos, diagrams.  Impact on community health; water pollution.

Horn, Kimberly A., Xin Gao, Geri A. Dino, and Sachin Kamal-Bahl.  2000.  “Determinants of Youth Tobacco Use in West Virginia: A Comparison of Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco Use” [883 ninth graders].  American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 26 (February): 125-138.

Howard, Jason.  2004. “Black Lung: In Search of Answers for East Kentucky Coal Miners” [legal aid’s role, black lung benefits struggle].  Equal Justice Magazine 3 (Fall): 37 paras.  http://www.ejm.lsc.gov/EJMIssue7/feature001.htm.

Howell, Patricia Kyritsi.  2006.  Medicinal Plants of the Southern Appalachians [guidebook: 45 plants; therapeutic index].  Mountain City, Ga.: BotanoLogos Books.  262 pp.

Hunter, Elizabeth.  1997.  “Hot Springs’ Health-Care Pioneers” [Madison Co., N.C., clinic].  Appalachia: Journal of the Appalachian Regional Commission 30 (May-August): 18-23.

Hutson, Sadie P., Kelly A. Dorgan, Kathryn L. Duvall, and Linda H. Garrett.  2011.  “Human Papillomavirus Infection, Vaccination, and Cervical Cancer Communication: The Protection Dilemma Faced by Women in Southern Appalachia.”  Women & Health 51, no. 8 (December): 795-810.  Interviewees included 39 women, ages 18-49, from eight counties in northeast Tenn. and southwest Va., 2007-2008.

Huttlinger, Kathleen, Jennifer Schaller-Ayers, and Tony Lawson.  2004.  “Health Care in Appalachia: A Population-Based Approach” [Southwest Va.; 922 households surveyed].  Public Health Nursing 21 (March/April): 103-110.

Irwin, Ned.  2005.  “‘Physician, Heal Thyself’: The Medical Career of Dr. J. G. M. Ramsey” [early 19th-century Knoxville; Civil War].  Journal of East Tennessee History 77: 28-48.

Jennings, Donna L., and Shelley I. White-Means.  2001.  “Medical Care Utilization by AFDC Recipients under Reformed Medicaid” [16-county Appalachian region].  Journal of Health & Social Policy 13 (no. 2): 21-39.

Jerome, Richard, and Giovanna Breu.  1999.  “The Roads Less Taken” [profiles W.Va. pediatrician Isabel Pino who delivers rural health care from a converted van].  People Weekly, 29 November, 74-79.

Jesse, D. Elizabeth, and Martha Raile Alligood.  2002.  “Holisitic Obstetrical Problem Evaluation (HOPE): Testing a Theory to Predict Birth Outcomes in a Group of Women from Appalachia” [120 pregnant women; East Tenn.].  Health Care for Women International 23 (September): 587-599.

Jonas, Adam B., April M. Young, Carrie B. Oser, Carl G. Leukefeld, and Jennifer R. Havens.  2012.  “OxyContin(TM) as Currency: OxyContin(TM) use and Increased Social Capital among Rural Appalachian Drug Users.”  Social Science & Medicine 74, no. 10 (May): 1602-1609.  Tables, diagram.

Kadlec, David.  1998.  “X-ray Testimonials in Muriel Rukeyser” [1938 poem].  Modernism/Modernity 5 (no. 1): 23-47.  Gauley Bridge, W.Va., tunnel; silicosis and African-American workers

Keefe, Susan E., and Paul Parsons.  2005.  “Health and Life-style Indicators in a Rural Appalachian County: Implications for Health-Care Practice” [Watauga Co., N.C.].  Chap. 8 in Appalachian Cultural Competency: A Guide for Medical, Mental Health, and Social Service Professionals, ed. S. Keefe, 183-195.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Keefe, Susan E., and Susie Greene.  2005.  “Mental Health Therapy for Appalachian Clients.”  Chap. 14 in Appalachian Cultural Competency: A Guide for Medical, Mental Health, and Social Service Professionals, ed. S. Keefe, 299-314.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Keefe, Susan E., Janice L. Hastrup, and Sherilyn N. Thomas.  2005.  “Psychological Testing in Rural Appalachia.”  Chap. 13 in Appalachian Cultural Competency: A Guide for Medical, Mental Health, and Social Service Professionals, ed. S. Keefe, 285-297.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

King, Lisa.  2012.  “OxyContin, Not Bath Salts, Is the Drug of Choice of Appalachian Addicts.”  Washington Times, 9 June: Communities section [Appalachian Chronicles series].  1,214 words.  http://communities.washingtontimes.com/neighborhood/appalachian-chronicles/2012/jun/9/OxyContin-Bath-Salts-drug-Appalachia-addicts/.

Krajcinovic, Ivana.  1997.  From Company Doctors to Managed Care: The United Mine Workers’ Noble Experiment [UMWA health care funded by Welfare and Retirement Fund, 1940s to 1960s]. Cornell Studies in Industrial and Labor Relations, no. 31.  Ithaca, N.Y.: ILR Press.  212 pp.

Larimore, Walt.  2002.  Bryson City Tales: Stories of a Doctor’s First Year of Practice in the Smoky Mountains [1980s].  Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan.  320 pp.

Larimore, Walter L.  2006.  Bryson City Secrets: Even More Tales of a Small-Town Doctor in the Smoky Mountains [N.C.].  Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan.  288 pp.

Lee, Renee Gravois, Julie L. Ozanne, and Ronald Paul Hill.  2000.  “Improving Service Encounters Through Resource Sensitivity: The Case of Health Care Delivery in an Appalachian Community.”  Journal of Public Policy & Marketing 18 (Fall): 230-248.

Lengerich, Eugene J., et al.  2005.  “Cancer Incidence in Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia: Disparities in Appalachia” [1994-1998 study; higher incidence in rural vs. normal Appalachia; tables].  Journal of Rural Health 21 (Winter): 39-47.

Leukefeld, Carl, et al.  2005.  “Prescription Drug Use, Health Services Utilization, and Health Problems in Rural Appalachian Kentucky” [OxyContin abuse].  Journal of Drug Issues 35, no. 3 (Summer): 631-644.

Lewis, Bonnie G.  2010.  “A Haven of Rest: Morris Memorial Hospital for Crippled Children.”   Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 36, no. 2 (Summer): 47-53.  Built by the WPA in 1936 at Milton, Cabell County, to treat polio; became obsolete following the 1955 vaccine.

Lewis, Wilma.  2000.  “Into the Hills” [Bobtown, W.Va.; public health nursing, 1950s-60s].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 17 (Spring): 12-15.

Lippard, Cameron D., and Jammie Price.  2011.  “Latino Health Care in Southern Appalachia a Community-Engaged Examination” [N.C.].  Journal of Applied Social Science 5, no. 2 (October): 66-87.  Survey of 159 Latinos concerning their views of health care services and barriers, 2007-2009.

Ludke, Robert L., and Phillip J. Obermiller, ed.  2012.  Appalachian Health and Well-Being.  Foreword by Richard A. Couto.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  386 pp.  Figures, maps, tables.  Contents: PART I. APPALACHIAN HEALTH DETERMINANTS.  Genetic contributions to health / Melanie F. Myers and Carol S. Baugh -- Health and the physical environment / Michael S. Hendryx -- The quest for an Appalachian health lifestyle / Evelyn A. Knight -- Health care systems / Joel A. Halverson, et al.  PART II. APPALACHIAN HEALTH STATUS.  The heart of Appalachia / Ann L. McCracken and E. Kelly Firesheets -- Diabetes and its management / Sharon A. Denham -- Obesity and food insecurity / Jennifer Chubinski and Mark A. Carrozza -- Cancer-related disparities / James L. Fisher, et al. -- Chronic kidney disease: a hidden illness / Barbara B. Weaner and Rebecca J. Schmidt -- Trauma / Levi D. Procter, et al. -- Mental health / Susan E. Keefe and Lisa Curtin -- Substance abuse / Michael S. Dunn, Bruce A. Behringer, and Kristine Harper Bowers -- Oral health / Daniel W. McNeil, Richard J. Crout, and Mary L. Marazita.  PART III. URBAN APPALACHIAN HEALTH.  Identifying Appalachians outside the region / Robert L. Ludke, et al. -- The health status and health determinants of urban Appalachian adults and children / Robert L. Ludke, Phillip J. Obermiller, and Ronnie D. Horner -- Community-based participatory health research in an urban Appalachian neighborhood / M. Kathryn Brown.

Ludke, Robert L., Jessica M. Valenzuela, Lora Arduser, Demaree K. Bruck, Phyllis S. Shelton, Shawna M. McCowan, and Donna Jones.  2012.  “An Urban Appalachian Neighborhood’s Response to Diabetes.”  Journal of Appalachian Studies 18, no. 1-2 (Spring-Fall): 176-188.  Lower Price Hill, Cincinnati.  “...a Community Health Advocate (CHA) program...trained neighborhood residents to canvass households to conduct diabetes risk assessments,” and provide education and follow-up.

Lukyanova, Valentina, and Toni Calasanti.  2009.  “Satisfaction with Family Planning Services among Appalachian and Non-Appalachian Women in Virginia.”  Journal of Appalachian Studies 15, no. 1-2 (Spring-Fall): 49-69.  Tables.

MacAvoy, Suzanne, and Doris Troth Lippman.  2001.  “Teaching Culturally Competent Care: Nursing Students Experience Rural Appalachia” [two courses taught at Fairfield Univ., Conn., for students sent to Appalachia].  Journal of Transcultural Nursing 12 (July): 221-227.

MacMaster, Samuel A., Kelly Tripp, and Sherri Argo.  2008.  “Perceptions of HIV Risk Behaviors and Service Needs Among Methamphetamine Users in Rural Appalachian Tennessee.”  Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse 7, no. 1 (April): 115-130.

Maher, Marie Bartlett.  2008.  The Frontier Nursing Service: America’s First Rural Nurse-Midwife Service and School [Ky.; Mary Breckinridge, 1881-1965].  Contributions to Southern Appalachian Studies, no. 22.  Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland.  250 pp.

Maloney, Michael E.  2005.  “Evaluating a Rite of Passage Program for Adolescent Appalachian Males” [objectives; Appalachian values defined].  Chap. 15 in Appalachian Cultural Competency: A Guide for Medical, Mental Health, and Social Service Professionals, ed. S. Keefe, 315-334.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Mariotti, Rita A.  2003.  Coal Miners’ Doctor [outsider memoir of 1957-59 experience as M.D. in a Ky. UMWA hospital].  Martinsville, Ind.: Bookman.  173 pp.

McCall, Pete.  2000.  “New River Clinic: A Model for Health Care in Appalachia” [UMWA-established].  United Mine Workers Journal 111 (May-June): 12-13.

McCulloch, B. Jan.  1995.  “The Relationship of Family Proximity and Social Support to the Mental Health of Older Rural Adults: The Appalachian Context.”  Journal of Aging Studies 9 (Spring): 65-81.

McDaniel, Lynda.  1999.  “Eula Hall: A Driving Force for Change” [founded Mud Creek Clinic, Grethel, Ky., in 1973].  Appalachia: Journal of the Appalachian Regional Commission 32 (May-August): 41-46.

McDevitt, Bette.  2009.  “Miners Clinics” [coal miners’ medical care].  Western Pennsylvania History 92, no. 3 (Fall): 32-43.  History of clinics organized by the Russellton Medical Group and the UMWA Welfare and Retirement Fund, 1950s-60s.  Allegheny-Kiski Valley, Pa.

McIvor, Arthur, and Ronald Johnston.  2007.  Miners’ Lung: A History of Dust Disease in British Coal Mining.  Aldershot, England: Ashgate.  355 pp.

McSpirit, Stephanie, and Caroline Reid.  2011.  “Residents’ Perceptions of Tap Water and Decisions to Purchase Bottled Water: A Survey Analysis from the Appalachian, Big Sandy Coal Mining Region of West Virginia.”  Society and Natural Resources 24, no. 5 (May): 511-20.

Meier, Barry.  2003.  Pain Killer: A “Wonder” Drug’s Trail of Addiction and Death [OxyContin].  Emmaus, Pa.: Rodale Press.  323 pp.

Meyer, Deborah, et al.  2005.  “Recruiting and Retaining Mental Health Professionals to Rural Communities: An Interdisciplinary Course In Appalachia” [distance-learning course].  Journal of Rural Health 21 (Winter): 86-91.

Meyer, Michael G.  2000.  “Mobilizing Moms in the War Against Tobacco.”  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 17 (Spring): 29-32.

Miroff, Nick.  2008.  “A Dark Addiction: Miners Caught in Western Va.’s Spiraling Rates of Painkiller Abuse.”  Washington Post, 13 January, 1(A).  3255 words.  Tazewell County, OxyContin, methadone.

Montell, William Lynwood.  2008.  Tales from Kentucky Doctors.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  249 pp.  First-hand accounts and anecdotes from 26 doctor informants.

Moore, Catherine.  2006.  “‘Let’s Show Them What a Fight We Can Give Them’: The Black Lung Movement in West Virginia” [1950s-60s].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 32, no. 2 (Summer): 6-13.

Moss, Kay K.  1999.  Southern Folk Medicine, 1750-1820.  Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.  259 pp.

Mulcahy, Richard.  1994.  “‘They Shall Walk Again!’  The Physical  Rehabilitation Program of the UMWA Welfare and Retirement  Fund.”  In Appalachian Adaptations to a Changing World, ed. Norma Myers.  Journal of the Appalachian Studies Association 6: 140-155.  Johnson City: East Tennessee State University, Center for Appalachian Studies and Services.

Mulcahy, Richard.  1996.  “A New Deal for Coal Miners: The UMWA Welfare and Retirement Fund and the Reorganization of Health Care in Appalachia.”  Journal of Appalachian Studies 2 (Spring): 29-52.

Mulcahy, Richard.  2009.  “Progress and Persistent Problems: Sixty Years of Health Care in Appalachia.”  In Culture, Class, and Politics in Modern Appalachia: Essays in Honor of Ronald L. Lewis, ed. J. Egolf, K. Fones-Wolf, and L. Martin, 204-223.  Morgantown: West Virginia University Press.  UMWA Welfare and Retirement Fund.

Online Archive of American Folk Medicine [200,000 folk remedies].  Established 1996.  Director, Michael Owen Jones, University of California, Los Angeles.  Advanced Search mode allows limiting by Mountain South location; “contains material from the UCLA Archive of American Folk Medicine established by Wayland D. Hand in the 1940s.”  http://www.folkmed.ucla.edu/index.html.

Pack, Robert P.  2010.  “Alarmingly High: Prescription Drug Abuse and the Pill Pipeline in Appalachia.”  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 26, no. 1 (Summer): 4-6.  Shaded county outline map.

Parker, Maggie Hammons.  2010.  “Hammons Family Remedies” [23 herbal remedies].  Old-Time Herald 12, no. 4 (April-May): 31.  Used by the family of this Pocahontas Co., W.Va. ballad singer.  http://oldtimeherald.org/archive/back_issues/index.html.

Persons, W. Scott, and Jeanine M. Davis.  2005.  Growing and Marketing Ginseng, Goldenseal and Other Woodland Medicinals [14 forest herbs].  Fairview, N.C.: Bright Mountain Books.  466 pp.

Pettigrew, Jonathan, Michelle Miller-Day, Janice Krieger, and Michael L. Hecht.  2012.  “The Rural Context of Illicit Substance Offers: A Study of Appalachian Rural Adolescents” [Pa., Ohio].  Journal of Adolescent Research 27, no. 4 (July): 523-550.

Platania, Joseph.  2003.  “Mission in the Mountains: West Virginia’s Pallottine Missionary Sisters” [providing medical care since 1912; Richwood; Huntington].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 29 (Spring): 18-25.

Platania, Joseph.  2005. “Fall Victory: Huntington’s 1918 Flu Epidemic” [3000 affected; 200 deaths in six weeks]. Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 31, no. 3 (Fall): 44-50.

Plaut, Thomas, Suzanne Landis, and June Palmour Trevor.  2009.  “Community Coalition Building in the Madison County Health Project” [N.C.].  In Participatory Development in Appalachia: Cultural Identity, Community, and Sustainability, ed. S. Keefe, 231-246.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Plaut, Thomas.  1998.  “Responsibility and Community: Sociology, Social Action, and Policy Making at the Local Level” [Madison Co., N.C.; Mars Hill College; medical services].  American Sociologist 29 (Winter): 48-63.

Pore, Renate E., and Daniel M. Christy.  1999.  “Access to Health Care in West Virginia”
[insurance; rurality; poverty].  In Inside West Virginia: Public Policy Perspectives for the 21st Century, ed. B. Keith and R. Althouse, 41-58.  Morgantown: West Virginia University Press.

Potter, Wendell.  2010.  “Remote Area Medical in Wise County, Virginia.”  In Deadly Spin: An Insurance Company Insider Speaks Out on How Corporate PR is Killing Health care and Deceiving Americans, by W. Potter, 63-77.  New York: Bloomsbury Press.

Power of Illness & the Promise of Health in Appalachia.  2000.  Special issue, Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 17 (Spring): 1-53.

Powers-Beck, Jeff.  2000.  “Beyond Control: Caring for a Body With Diabetes” [juvenile diabetes].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 17 (Spring): 42-45.

Puckett, Anita.  2005.  “Negotiating Rural Southern Mountain Speech.”  Chap. 1 in Appalachian Cultural Competency: A Guide for Medical, Mental Health, and Social Service Professionals, ed. S. Keefe, 31-54.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Rago, Linda Ours.  2000.  Blackberry Cove Herbal: Healing with Common Herbs in the Appalachian Wise-Woman Tradition.  Sterling, Va.: Capital Books.  166 pp.

Ramey, Crystal, and Jenna Davis.  1998.  “Healing the Natural Way” [interview with Ga. herbalist Charles Thurmond].  Foxfire Magazine 32 (Spring/Summer): 47-51.

Ramsey, Priscilla W., and L. Lee Glenn.  1998.  “Risk Factors for Heart Disease in Rural Appalachia” [Eastern Tenn. county].  Family and Community Health 20 (January): 71-82.

Roberts, Alma Dolen.  2000.  House Calls: Memoirs of Life with a Kentucky Doctor [Wayne Co.; 1932-93].  Ashland, Ky.: Jesse Stuart Foundation.  326 pp.

Roberts, Alma Dolen.  2001. House Calls: Memoirs of Life with a Kentucky Doctor [Wayne Co.; 1903-2001].  Ashland, Ky.: Jesse Stuart Foundation.  326 pp.

Rosswurm, Mary Ann, Debra M. Dent, Cynthia C. Armstrong-Persily, Paula Woodburn, and Barbara Davis.  1996.  “Illness Experiences and Health Recovery Behaviors of Patients in Southern Appalachia” [W.Va.].  Western Journal of Nursing Research 18 (August): 441-459.

Rowles, Graham D., James A Concotelli, and Dallas M. High.  1996.  “Community Integration of a Rural Nursing Home.”  Journal of Applied Gerontology 15 (June): 188-201.

Royse, David, and Mark Dignan.  2011.  “Fatalism and Cancer Screening in Appalachian Kentucky.”  Family & Community Health 34, no. 2 (April-June): 126-133.  Telephone survey of 696 adults in 51 Kentucky counties.

Russell, Jack, and Fred D. Baldwin.  1999.  “A Conversation on Rural Health Care” [interview with Wayne Myers, director, U.S. Office of Rural Health Policy].  Appalachia: Journal of the Appalachian Regional Commission 32 (May-August): 16-21.

Salyers, Kathleen M., and Martin H. Ritchie.  2006.  “Multicultural Counseling: An Appalachian Perspective” [case study].  Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development 34, no. 3 (July): 130-142.

Sanford, Bonnie L., et al.  2008.  “Radio X: Guaranteed Not to Contain any Poisonous Drugs.” Western Pennsylvania History 91, no. 1 (Spring): 32-39.  Century-old pharmaceutical agents of Old Fowler general store, Wellsburg, W.Va. – curated by Meadowcroft Museum, Avella, Pa. – included remedies containing harmful radioactive materials.

Schultz, Katey.  2007.  “Mountains of Tea” [Western N.C. herbalist, Joe Hollis; Chinese botanical garden].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 23, no. 2 (Fall/Winter): 20-23.

Shambaugh, Helen Bradfield.  2003.  “Magnolia Nurse: Patty Norton of Morgan County” [b. 1913; rural health care, 1940s-50s].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 29 (Winter): 46-48.

Sharp, Roland.  2008.  Roland Sharp, Country Doctor: Memories of a Life Well Lived with Some Thoughts About Medicine [b. 1907].  Dunmore, W.Va.: Pocahontas Communications Cooperative.  262 pp.  www.alleghenymountainradio.org.

Shuford, Chuck.  2010.  “Appalachia’s Drinking Problem.”  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 26, no. 1 (Summer): 12-14.  Soft drinks such as “Mountain Dew,” school vending sales, and problems including diet, dental, and diabetes.

Simpson, Mary Rado, and Marilyn Givens King.  1999.  “‘God Brought All These Churches Together’: Issues in Developing Religion-Health Partnerships in an Appalachian Community” [Ky., W.Va.].  Public Health Nursing 16 (February): 41-49.

Sink, Alice E.  2000.  “The Grit Behind the Miracle: A Community Builds a Hospital” [1944 Catawba Co., N.C.; emergency polio facility].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 17 (Spring): 8-11.

Smith, Barbara.  2005.  “‘Are You Sick?’ Dr. J. W. Myers and His Remedy Company” [incorporated 1915, Philippi, W.Va.]. Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 31, no. 1 (Spring): 36-43.  Sidebar: “The Myers Clinic: A Family Legacy in Barbour County,” 44-45.

Smith, Barbara.  2005.  Their Name Means Medicine: The Story of the Myers Family [physicians; Phillipi, W.Va.; biography].  Parsons, W.Va.: McClain Printing Co.  132 pp.

Smith, Margaret Charles, and Linda Janet Holmes.  1996.  Listen to Me Good: The Life Story of an Alabama Midwife.  Columbus: Ohio State University Press.  Greene County; 91-year-old African American; old-time birthing ways.

Smoot, Richard C.  1995.  “Medical History Notes From Appalachia.”  Appalachian Heritage 23 (Fall): 21-28.

Temple, John, and Joel Beeson, ed.  2004.  Cancer Stories: Lessons in Love, Loss, and Hope.  Morgantown: West Virginia University Press.  219 pp., plus DVD-ROM.  Photo-essays; journalism students paired with patients.

Thomas, James G., and Charles Reagan Wilson, ed.  2012.  Science & Medicine,Vol. 22 of The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  281 pp.  Thirty-eight essays and 46 shorter entries written by experts, including: Folk Medicine | Healers, Women | Health, Rural | Poverty, Effects of | Faith Healing | Frontier Nursing Service | HIV/AIDS | Medicine Shows.

Thornton, Gwendolyn B., and Krystal Deitz-Allyn.  2010.  “Substance Abuse, Unemployment Problems, and the Disparities in Mental Health Services in the Appalachian Southwest Region” [Wise Co., Va.].  Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment 20, no. 7 (October): 939-951.

Timah, Nga Joseph.  2000.  “Herbal Medicine in Cameroon and North Carolina.”  Appalachian Journal 27 (Summer): 354-367.

Toborg, Mary A.  1997.  An Assessment of Tobacco Prevention and Control Materials Used in the Appalachian Mountain Region [research supported by National Cancer Inst.]. Landover, Md.: Toborg Associates, Inc.  110 pp.

Toborg, Mary A.  1997.  Catalogue of Tobacco Prevention and Control Materials Used in the Appalachian Mountain Region [471 entries: workbooks, videos, factsheets; indexed].  Landover, Md.: Toborg Associates, Inc.  150 pp.

United States.  2007.  Appalachian Ice: The Methamphetamine Epidemic in Western North Carolina : Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives, One Hundred Ninth Congress, Second Session, April 11, 2006. Washington: U.S. G.P.O..  83 pp.  http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS77653.

Urbina, Ian.  2007.  “In Kentucky’s Teeth, Toll of Poverty and Neglect” [tobacco, malnutrition, Medicaid].  New York Times, 24 December, 1(A).  1623 words.

Valencius, Conevery Bolton.  2002.  The Health of the Country: How American Settlers Understood Themselves and Their Land [19th-century Ark. and Mo.].  New York: Basic Books.  388 pp.  Contents: “Healthy country”. “Is it thriving & healthy?” -- Sources -- Making American territory -- “New country”. “Wild” land and “new” -- Acclimation --Literature of settlement -- “Movers” and “improvers” -- Early Arkansas and Missouri -- Native peoples -- Emigration stories, Black and white -- Body. Medicine and the demands of health -- Force and flow -- Blood -- Intake and outgo -- “Risings” and release -- Derangement and proper management -- Change -- Chills and fevers -- Places. “Place” -- Telling the “Health of the country” -- Indoors and out -- Climate and constitution --Movement -- Airs. Reading the air -- Miasma -- Smell -- Counteraction -- Disgust -- Expertise and common knowledge -- Change and the perils of human action -- Blurred boundaries -- Waters. Conduit -- Blessing -- Threat -- Flood -- Swamp -- Sloughs of the spirit -- Wondrous waters: healing springs -- Local knowledge: medical geography and the intellectual hinterland. “On the medical topography of Saint Charles County, Mo.” -- Science of the local -- Politics of local knowledge -- Professional anxieties of the periphery -- Regional boosterism and southern medicine -- Uses of history -- Models for hinterland practice -- Cultivation. Agriculture as material and moral imperative -- Farm work --; Cultivation and sense of self -- Fertility and generation -- Changes wrought by cultivation -- Crisis -- Racial anxiety. Peoples and places -- Environmental belonging -- Vulnerability of the racial self -- Blurred boundaries -- Proper place: free Black identity -- Mixedness and the problem of color -- Failure of order.

Verghese, Abraham.  1994.  My Own Country: A Doctor’s Story.  New  York: Simon & Schuster.  347 pp.

Wagner, Melinda Bollar.  2005.  “Connecting What We Know to What We Do: Modifying Interview Techniques for the Collective Self in Appalachia.”  Chap. 2 in Appalachian Cultural Competency: A Guide for Medical, Mental Health, and Social Service Professionals, ed. S. Keefe, 55-73.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Wallace, Ryan, et al.  2008.  “Trends in Tuberculosis Reported From the Appalachian Region: United States, 1993-2005.”  Journal of Rural Health 24, no. 3 (Summer): 236-243.  CDC analysis; foreign-born Hispanics’ rates increasing.

Wallace, William E.  2000.  “In  Isolation” [1952 Charleston, W.Va.; childhood memories of a polio sanitarium].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 17 (Spring): 3-7.

Weaver, Karol K.  2004.  “‘She Knew All the Old Remedies’: Medical Caregiving and Neighborhood Women of the Anthracite Coal Region of Pennsylvania” [Mount Carmel; immigrants].  Pennsylvania History 71 (Autumn): 421-444.

Weaver, Karol K.  2011.  Medical Caregiving and Identity in Pennsylvania’s Anthracite Region, 1880-2000.  University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.  “Examines folk songs, patent medicine advertisements, oral history interviews, ghost stories, and jokes to show how...the men and women...crafted their gender and ethnic identities via the medical decisions they made.”

Welch, Wendy.  2011.  “Self Control, Fatalism, and Health in Appalachia.”  Journal of Appalachian Studies 17, no. 1-2 (Spring-Fall): 108-122.  “Fatalism can appear as: faith-based; oppositional to distrust; pride covering poverty; apathy or unwillingness to change; based on ignorance of potential health consequences; upholding a quality of life.”

Wewers, Mary Ellen.  2000.  “Tobacco Use Characteristics among Rural Ohio Appalachians.”  Journal of Community Health 25 (October): 377-388.

Winkler, Wayne.  2011.  “The Jake Walk Blues from a Green Bottle.”  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 27, no. 1 (Summer): 67-69.  Discusses the 1930s toxic variant of Jamaica ginger, “jake drinkers’” resultant epidemic paralysis, and the release of the song, “Jake Walk Blues” (and later variants in country and blues genres).

Witchel, Alex.  2009.  “Putting America’s Diet on a Diet” [a visit to Huntington, W.Va., posed as the nation’s unhealthiest city].  New York Times, 6 October, 50 (Magazine section).  4941 words.  http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/11/magazine/11Oliver-t.html.

Woodside, Jane Harris.  2000.  “When It Comes to Health, Everyone’s an Expert: The Madison County Health Coalition” [N.C.; Kellogg Foundation funds].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 17 (Spring): 16-19.

Workman, Megan.  2011.  “W.Va. Is Only State with Rising Teen Birthrate” [17 percent increase, 2007-2009].  Charleston Gazette, 18 October.  1036 words.  http://www.wvgazette.com/News/201110180208.

Wright, Jessica Gamponia.  1999.  “Physical Activity Among West Virginians: Bridging Barriers to Promote Health” [tables].  In Inside West Virginia: Public Policy Perspectives for the 21st Century, ed. B. Keith and R. Althouse, 27-39.  Morgantown: West Virginia University Press.

Wykoff, Randy.  2010.  “Public Health in Appalachia: The Perspective of One Hundred Years: How High is the Wall in Your Town?” [tuberculosis and six other communicable diseases].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 26, no. 1 (Summer): 9-11.  Reflects on the book, Popular Talks on Preventable Diseases (1908-09), compiled from copies of “Virginia Health Bulletin” issued by the State Department of Health.

Young, April M., and Jennifer R. Havens.  2012.  “Transition from First Illicit Drug Use to First Injection Drug Use among Rural Appalachian Drug Users: A Cross-Sectional Comparison and Retrospective Survival Analysis” [Ky.].  Addiction 107, no. 3: 587-596.  Tables, figures.

Ziegenfus, Robert C.  2012.  “Geographic Patterns of Children’s Blood Lead Levels in Pennsylvania Counties.”  Pennsylvania Geographer 50, no. 1-2: 132-160.  Tables; shaded county outline maps.

Ziff, Katherine K.  2012.  Asylum on the Hill: History of a Healing Landscape.  Athens: Ohio University Press.  220 pp.  Focuses on the first twenty years, 1874-1893, of Athens State (psychiatric) Hospital and 19th-century treatment of the insane.  Numerous illustrations of buildings and grounds.

Zullig, Keith J., and Michael Hendryx.  2011.  “Health-Related Quality of Life among Central Appalachian Residents in Mountaintop Mining Counties” [tables; maps; Ky., Tenn., Va., W.Va.].  American Journal of Public Health 101, no. 5 (May): 848-853.  “In April 2010, the EPA issued new guidance regulating MTM that recognized the environmental and community health costs imposed by this practice; ....Our results contribute to the evidence base in support of the April EPA decision.”  (See also: Ahern, et al., 2011).