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Coal, Industry, Labor, Railroads, Transportation

Including lumber, iron & steel, oil & gas, hydraulic fracturing (fracking), automobile, chemical, hydroelectric, nuclear, glass, textile, livestock, mining, and tourist trade industries; labor unions and strikes; highways, canals and river transportation.

Abramson, Rudy.  2001.  “Mountaintop Removal: Necessity or Nightmare?”  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 18 (Winter): 20-24.

Adams, Sean Patrick.  2004.  Old Dominion, Industrial Commonwealth: Coal, Politics, and Economy in Antebellum America [Pa. and western Va.].  Studies in Early American Economy and Society from the Library Company of Philadelphia.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.  303 pp.

Adams, Sean Patrick.  2008.  “Warming the Poor and Growing Consumers: Fuel Philanthropy in the Early Republic’s Urban North.”  Journal of American History 95, no. 1 (June): 69-94.  Anthracite coal; Philadelphia, New York, Boston; 1800-1830s.

Aldreich, Mark.  1997.  “The Perils of Mining Anthracite: Regulation, Technology and Safety, 1870-1945.”  Pennsylvania History 64 (Summer): 361-383.

Amberg, Rob.  2007.  “I-26, Corridor of Change: Rob Amberg, Madison County, North Carolina” [multimedia photo essay].  Southern Spaces: An Interdisciplinary Journal about the Regions, Places, and Cultures of the American South.  5 June 2007.  Space, Place, and Appalachia series.  Essay sections: Interactive Map and Photo Essay | Introduction | About Madison County | The Arrival of I-26 | Recommended Resources | Overview.  http://www.southernspaces.org/contents/2007/amberg/2a.htm.

Amberg, Rob.  2009.  The New Road: I-26 and the Footprints of Progress in Appalachia [Madison Co., N.C.].  Chicago: Center for American Places at Columbia College Chicago.  187 pp.  Photo-documentary and oral history of the social effects and physical displacements of this enormous interstate highway intruder in western N.C.

Anderson, Timothy G.  2001.  “From Ravaged to Recovered: The Landscape of Southern Ohio’s Hanging Rock Region” [19th-century charcoal furnace ironmaking, boom-bust, relic landscape].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 18 (Winter): 29-33.

Andrews, Thomas G.  2008.  Killing for Coal: America’s Deadliest Labor War.  Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.  386 pp.  Colorado labor conflict and 1914 Ludlow massacre.

Angstadt, Colleen M., and John E. Benhart.  2000.  “A Review of the Iron and Steel Industry of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.”  In A Geographic Perspective of Pittsburgh and the Alleghenies: From Precambrian to Post-Industrial, ed. K. Patrick and J. Scarpaci, 164-170.  Washington, D.C.: Association of American Geographers.

Apelt, Brian.  2001.  The Corporation: A Centennial Biography of United States Steel Corporation, 1901-2001.  Edited by Warren Hull.  Pittsburgh: Cathedral Publishing, University of Pittsburgh.  547 pp.

Appalachia’s Agony [editorial; disgrace of mountaintop removal mining; Clean Water Act; Obama campaign pledge].  2009.  New York Times, 16 March, 22(A).  455 words.

Archer, William R., and the Princeton Railroad Museum.  2007.  The Virginian Railway [Va., W.Va.; photo retrospective;  Tidewater Railway Company].  Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia.  127 pp.

Arnold, Andrew B.  2003.  “Between the Laws: Informal Definitions of Job and Property Rights in Central Pennsylvania, 1870-1884” [coal miners’ unions].  Journal of Pennsylvania History 70 (Winter): 28-54.

Arnold, Bill, and Lori Arnold, with Joyann Dwire.  2004.  Miracle at Dormel Farms: The Story of the Quecreek Mine Rescue [Somerset, Pa.; nine trapped miners; July 2002].  Somerset, Pa.: Dormel Enterprises (www.quecreekrescue.org).  126 pp.

Ashe County Historical Society.  2011.  The Virginia Creeper in Ashe County [N.C.; railroad; photo retrospective].  Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia.  127 pp.  Norfolk and Western Abingdon [Va.] Line ran timber, passengers, and eventually tourists between Abingdon and Whitetop Mountain, N.C., from 1914 to 1977.

Atkins, Joseph B.  2008.  Covering for the Bosses: Labor and the Southern Press.  Jackson: University Press of Mississippi.  264 pp.

Aurand, Harold W.  2002.  “The Lattimer Massacre: Who Owns History? -- An Introduction” 97; Luzerne Co.].  Pennsylvania History 69 (Winter): 5-10.

Aurand, Harold W.  2003.  Coalcracker Culture: Work and Values in Pennsylvania Anthracite, 1835-1935.  Selinsgrove, Pa.: Susquehanna University Press.  158 pp.

Aurora Lights.  2009.  “Journey up Coal River” [W.Va.; e-Appalachia Award for Outstanding Website winner].  http://auroralights.org/map_project/.  Interactive multimedia and mapping website combining music, photography, and narrative.  Themed sidebar webpages: History and social geography -- Land use -- A community & strip mining -- Public health and coal slurry -- What is mountaintop removal? -- Renewable energy.

Austin, Kelly, and Brett Clark.  2012.  “Tearing Down Mountains: Using Spatial and Metabolic Analysis to Investigate the Socio-Ecological Contradictions of Coal Extraction in Appalachia.”  Critical Sociology 38, no. 3 (May): 437-457.  “We employ a political-economy perspective in order to assess the uneven capitalist development and socio-ecological contradictions of mountaintop removal.”

Bagdon, Philip V.  2000.  “Cass: A Short History,” 38-41; “‘Hell’s Acre’: A Visit to East Cass,” 42-44 [railroad and timber company town; today a tourist center].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 26 (Summer): 38-44.

Bagdon, Philip V.  2001.  Shay Logging Locomotives at Cass, West Virginia, 1900-60 [interviews, photographs, service profiles].  Lynchburg, Va.: TLC Publishing.  112 pp.

Bagdon, Philip V.  2002.  Meadow River Lumber Company: West Virginia’s Last Logging Railroad [Rainelle, W.Va., 1910-1970; Shay locomotives; photo history].  Lynchburg, Va.: TLC Publishing.  76 pp.

Bailey, Alfred Reno.  2005.  Cliffside: Portrait of a Carolina Mill Town [Rutherford Co., N.C., textile mill; photo-retrospective].  Images of America. Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 2005. 128 pp.

Bailey, Brent, Evan Hansen, Holly Groschner, Rory McIlmoil, Laura Hartz, Jen Shaver, and Anne Hereford.  2012.  “A Windfall for Coal Country?  Exploring the Barriers to Wind Development in Appalachia” [W.Va., Pa., Md., Va., Ky.].  Morgantown, W.Va.: Downstream Strategies in partnership with The Mountain Institute, Appalachian Program.  113 pp.  Figures, maps, graphs. http://www.downstreamstrategies.com/documents/reports_publication/DS_wind-technical-report-final.pdf.

Bailey, Kenneth R.  2012.  “The Scioto Disaster” [steamboat, 1882].  West Virginia History: A Journal of Regional Studies 6, no. 1 (2012): 49-72.  Description of the Ohio River steamboat collision between East Liverpool and Moundsville in which seventy people drowned, and the trial and aftermath.  See also Timothy Brooks’ account, “A Pall of Egyptain Gloom,” http://www.eastliverpoolhistoricalsociety.org/scioto1.htm.

Bailey, Rebecca J.  2008.  Matewan Before the Massacre: Politics, Coal, and the Roots of Conflict in a West Virginia Mining Community [Mingo Co., 1895-1920].  West Virginia and Appalachia series, no. 8.  Morgantown: West Virginia University Press.  292 pp.

Bailey, Rebecca.  2009.  “The Matewan Massacre: Before and After” [W.Va.; 1920].  In Culture, Class, and Politics in Modern Appalachia: Essays in Honor of Ronald L. Lewis, ed. J. Egolf, K. Fones-Wolf, and L. Martin, 166-203.  Morgantown: West Virginia University Press.

Baker, Bruce E.  2006.  “‘The First Anarchist that Ever Came to Atlanta’: Hiram F. Hover from New York to the New South.”  In Radicalism in the South Since Reconstruction, ed. C. Green, R. Rubin, and J. Smethurst, 39-56.  New York: Palgrave Macmillan.  Labor organizing in Knoxville and piedmont N.C., S.C., Ga., 1885-90.

Baker, Pamela L.  2002.  “The Washington National Road Bill and the Struggle to Adopt a Federal System of Internal Improvement” [1830; map, tables].  Journal of the Early Republic 22 (Fall): 437-464.

Baldridge, Terry L.  2007.  Eastern Kentucky Railway [photo retrospective; 36 miles: Greenup, Carter, Lawrence Cos.].  Images of Rail.  Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia.  127 pp.

Baldwin, Fred D.  1997.  “ANDROS Does the Dirty Work” [Oak Ridge, Tenn.-based REMOTEC manufactures remote-controlled robots].  Appalachia: Journal of the Appalachian Regional Commission 30 (Jan.-Apr.): 24-29.

Baldwin, Fred D.  1997.  “Two Sides of the Road” [Tioga Co., Pa., road improvements].  Appalachia: Journal of the Appalachian Regional Commission 30 (Sept.-Dec.): 26-31.

Baldwin, Fred D.  1999.  “Summit Emphasizes Need for Transportation Connections” [Appalachian Intermodal Transportation Summit, Lexington, Ky., May 17-18].  Appalachia: Journal of the Appalachian Regional Commission 32 (May-August): 27-32.  (Eight full-page, color maps are appended covering Transportation Systems in the Appalachian Region: highway system; bus routes; freight railroads; flat car/container facilities; passenger railroads; waterways and ports; commercial airline service; general aviation service, pp. 33-40).  http://www.arc.gov/infopubs/appalach/mayaug99/summit.htm.

Baldwin, Fred D.  2001.  “Keeping the Line Open: The Mississippi Railway Cooperative” [Itawamba Co., Miss.].  Appalachia: Journal of the Appalachian Regional Commission 34 (May-August): 10-15.

Baldwin, Fred D.  2001.  “Short Line Railroads: Local Lifelines for Business” [Ohio Central Railroad System].  Appalachia: Journal of the Appalachian Regional Commission 34 (May-August): 2-9.

Banerjee, Neela.  2006. “Taking On a Coal Mining Practice as a Matter of Faith” [Christians against mountaintop removal; Hale Gap, Va.; photos].  New York Times, 28 October, 9(A).  1203 words.

Banks, Alan.  1995.  “Class Formation in the Southeastern Kentucky Coalfields, 1890-1920.”  In Appalachia in the Making: The Mountain South in the Nineteenth Century, ed. M. Pudup, D. Billings, and A. Waller, 321-346.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Banks, Alan.  [1999] 2001.  “Miners Talk Back: Labor Activism in Southeastern Kentucky in 1922.”  In Back Talk from Appalachia: Confronting Stereotypes, ed. D. Billings, G. Norman, and K. Ledford, 215-227.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  Originally published as Confronting Appalachian Stereotypes.

Barkey, Fred.  2001.  “West Virginia’s Belgian and French Glassworkers” [labor history; window-glass industry].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 27 (Summer): 28-29.

Barkley, Artie, ed.  2005.  100 Years Against the Mountain: Shay No. 5 at Cass, WV: with Stories by Artie Barkley [and others; six essays].  West Chester, Pa.: Greenhill Station Productions.  72 pp.  Pictorial; narrow-gauge Shay steam locomotives; railroad and lumber company town.

Barnes, L. Diane.  1999.  “Urban Rivalry in the Upper Ohio Valley: Wheeling and Pittsburgh in the Nineteenth Century.”  Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 123 (July): 201-226.

Barry, Dan.  2007.  “A Way of Life, Seen Through Coal-Tinted Glasses” [Logan, W.Va.]. This Land (weekly column).  New York Times, 14 January, 18(A).  954 words.

Barry, Dan.  2011.  “As the Mountaintops Fall, a Coal Town Vanishes” [W.Va.].  New York Times, 13 April, 1(A).  2,775 words.  Mountaintop removal, Lindytown, Massey Energy.  Multimedia slide show; readers’ comments.  http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/13/us/13lindytown.html.

Barry, Joyce.  2001.  “Mountaineers Are Always Free? An Examination of the Effects of Mountaintop Removal in West Virginia.”  Women’s Studies Quarterly 29 (Spring-Summer): 116-130.

Barton, John, and Stephen Winick.  2006.  “‘A Big, Breezy, Wholesome, Smiling, Man’: Captain Pearl R. Nye Goes Online” [b. 1872 near Chillicothe, Oh.; lived and worked on the Ohio and Erie Canal; song lyrics, correspondence, and 75 songs to be digitized, capturing life on the canal, 1825-1913].  Folklife Center News (Library of Congress) 28, no. 3 (Summer): 13-14.  http://www.loc.gov/folklife/news/pdf/afcnews-summer-2006.pdf.

Bates, Artie Ann.  2008.  “White Opium, Black Coal, and the Appalachian Revolution” [Ky.].  Appalachian Heritage 36, no. 2 (Spring): 56-59.  Points out the overlapping entropic forces of drug addiction to Oxycontin and dependence on coal mining to generate electricity.

Battlo, Jean.  2000.  Terror of the Tug [drama; Mother Jones; 1920-21 coal strike].  Welch, W.Va.(?): McArts Publication.  95 pp.

Baumann, Nick.  2010.  “The West Virginia Mine Disaster” (blog).  Mother Jones, 6 April.  http://motherjones.com/mojo/2010/04/west-virginia-mine-disaster.  Upper Big Branch mine, Montcoal, W.Va.; 29 dead; includes a nine-minute YouTube video clip of a April 7, 2008, ABC News Nightline exposé, “Massey Coal’s Don Blankenship Shows His Hand,” by jesthufaxmaam.

Beamer, Glenn.  2007.  “Sustaining the Rust Belt: A Retrospective Analysis of the Employee Purchase of Weirton Steel” [W.Va.; 11,000 employees; 1983-2003].  Labor History 48, no. 3 (August): 277-299.

Beatty, Bess.  2000.  Alamance: The Holt Family and Industrialization in a North Carolina County, 1837-1900 [textile industry].  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.  248 pp.

Beauregard, Erving E.  1998.  “L. Milton Ronsheim and Strip Coal Mining in Ohio” [regulatory campaign].  Journal of Unconventional History 9 (no. 3): 16-33.

Beik, Mildred A.  1996.  “The UMWA and New Immigrant Miners in Pennsylvania Bituminous: The Case of Windber.”  In The United Mine Workers of America: A Model of Industrial Solidarity?, ed. J. Laslett, 320-344.  University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Beik, Mildred A.  1996.  The Miners of Windber: The Struggles of New Immigrants for Unionization, 1890s-1930s.  University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.  447 pp.

Bell, Shannon Elizabeth, and Richard York.  2010.  “Community Economic Identity: The Coal Industry and Ideology Construction in West Virginia.”  Rural Sociology 75, no. 1 (March): 111–143.  Analysis of  “the efforts of the West Virginia coal industry, which, through its (faux) ‘grassroots’ front group ‘Friends of Coal,’ attempts to construct the image that West Virginia’s economy and cultural identity are centered on coal production.”

Benhart, John E.  2007.  Appalachian Aspirations: The Geography of Urbanization and Development in the Upper Tennessee River Valley, 1865-1900 [capitalism; railroads; Roane and Loudon Cos.].  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.  184 pp.

Bennett, James R., and Karen R. Utz.  2010.  Iron & Steel: A Guide to Birmingham Area Industrial Heritage Sites [guidebook].  Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.  128 pp.  Contents: Tannehill Ironworks Historical State Park -- Shelby Ironworks Park -- Billy Gould Coke Ovens Park -- Brierfield Ironworks Historical State Park -- Oxmoor Furnace Site -- Irondale Furnace Park -- Helena Rolling Mill Site -- Red Mountain Park, iron ore mines -- Lewisburg Coke Ovens Park -- Sloss Furnaces National Historic Landmark -- Ruffner Mountain Nature Center -- Blocton Coke Ovens Park -- Vulcan Park and Museum -- Glossary.

Berkes, Howard, with contributions from Anne Hawke.  2011.  “Report Blasts Massey for ‘Deviance’ in Safety Culture” [April 5, 2010, explosion that killed 29 miners in Montcoal, W.Va.].  NPR News Investigations.  NPR, 19 May, 2011.  Results of first investigative report; sidebars and graphics: “Major Findings”; “How the Blast Happened & Mapping the Loss”; “Fear Factor”; “An Unexpected Finding”; and related stories. http://www.npr.org/2011/05/19/136426906/report-blasts-massey-for-deviance-in-safety-culture.

Berkes, Howard.  2012.  “Black Lung Returns to Coal Country.”  NPR News, special series, July 2012 [transcripts and podcasts; tables, illustrations, multimedia links, and related stories].  http://www.npr.org/series/156453033/black-lung-returns-to-coal-country.  “An investigation by NPR and the Center for Public Integrity found federal regulators and the mining industry are failing to protect miners from the excessive toxic coal mine dust that causes black lung. The disease is now being diagnosed in younger miners and evolving more quickly to complicated stages.”  Broadcasts: As Mine Protections Fail, Black Lung Cases Surge, 9 July (12:29 min.) / Howard Berkes -- Black-Lung Rule Loopholes Leave Miners Vulnerable, 10 July (7:56 min.) / Howard Berkes -- What Is Black Lung [graphic], 9 July / Alyson Hurt, Howard Berkes, Alicia Cypress -- Documenting ‘Dirty’ Jobs: Miners At Work, 9 July / Becky Lettenberger, photos by Earl Dotter -- Black Lung: Why Respirators Are Not A Solution, 9 July / Howard Berkes -- Surface Coal Miners At Risk For Black Lung, 9 July / Howard Berkes -- Republican Lawmakers Seek To Block Funding On Black Lung Regulation, 17 July / Howard Berkes -- Federal Mine Agency Considering Tougher Response On Black Lung, 13 July / Howard Berkes.

Bethell, Thomas N.  1996.  “No Higher Calling.”  Appalachian Heritage 24 (Winter): 6-13.  Interview with Davitt McAteer, Assistant Secretary of Labor for Mine Safety and Health.

Bible, Robin.  2002.  “Stringtowns: Early Logging Communities in the Great Smoky Mountains” [Elkmont, Tremont].  Forest History Today (Spring): 29-32.

Biery, Thomas A.  1999.  Chessie System, Cumberland Action [Western Md.; diesel locomotives; pictorial].  Hanover, Pa.: Railroad Press.  112 pp.

Biggers, Jeff.  2008.  “‘Clean’ Coal? Don’t Try to Shovel That” [“oxymoron”].  Washington Post, 2 March, 2(B).  882 words.  Bush administration plans to reduce carbon emissions.

Biggers, Jeff.  2009.  “The Coalfield Uprising” [grassroots environmental activism].  Nation 289, no. 12 (October 19): 16-21.

Biggers, Jeff.  2010.  Reckoning at Eagle Creek: The Secret Legacy of Coal in the Heartland [Illinois; 200 years; memoir and jeremiad].  New York: Nation Books.  300 pp.  Contents: 4.5 hours: the choices we made -- In the name of the Shawnee: removing the Earth’s liver -- Black diamonds, black lives: the entangled roots of slavery and coal -- Who killed the miners?: an anatomy of denial -- Black waters, black waters: murder of Little Egypt -- The short swift time of clean coal on Earth: dirty coal has left the building.

Biggers, Jeff.  2012.  “Appeal to Action: Appalachian Leaders Launch Mountaintop Removal Moratorium Now Campaign.”  Huffington Post (blog), 12 July.  2,023 words.  http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jeff-biggers/mountaintop-removal-moratorium-now-campaign_b_895472.html.

Biggers, Jeff.  2012.  “Maria Gunnoe Testifies Before Congress: The Fact Is Mountaintop Removal Is Killing People” [Boone Co., W.Va.].  AlterNet (blog), 1 June.  1,926 words.  Transcript of Gunnoe’s statement with a link to a slide show of 38 images she entered into the record.  http://blogs.alternet.org/speakeasy/2012/06/01/maria-gunnoe-testifies-before-congress-the-fact-is-mountaintop-removal-is-killing-people/.  See also: “Bathtub Photo Lands Coal Activist in Child-Porn Hot Water,” by Philip Bump, Grist (blog), 4 June,  483 words,  http://grist.org/climate-energy/bathtub-photo-lands-coal-activist-in-child-porn-hot-water/.

Billings, Dwight B.  2008.  “Supporting ‘A Conscious Heart’ and Oppositional Knowledge in the Struggle Against Mountaintop Removal Coal Mining.”  Journal of Appalachian Studies 14, no. 1-2 (Spring-Fall): 20-27.  Response to keynote address at 2008 Appalachian Studies Conference by Silas House [“A Conscious Heart,”  Journal of Appalachian Studies 14:7-19].  See also Edwina Pendarvis’s “Response,” pp. 28-33.

Billings, Sean, and Johanna S. Billings.  2001.  “Colorful Sands: Glassmaking and the Peachblow Craze” [begun 1886; W.Va.].  Canal History and Technology Proceedings 20: 112-138.  Easton, Pa.: Canal History and Technology Press.

Birdsong, Shelley C.  1997.  “Cotton Hill Station Road and Bridge: An Example of Early Federally Funded Road Construction in Fayette County” [W.Va., Good Roads Movement].  In  Proceedings, New River Symposium, April 11-12, 1997, Glade Springs Resort, Daniels, West Virginia, 48-58.  Glen Jean, W.Va.: National Park Service.

Birdwell, Michael E., and Jack Hurst, section editors.  2006.  “Business, Industry, and Technology” [signed entries].  In Encyclopedia of Appalachia, ed. R. Abramson and J. Haskell, 441-549 (with introductory essay, 441-447).  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Black, Brian.  1999.  “‘A Triumph of Individualism’: The Rule of Capture and the Ethic of Extraction in Pennsylvania’s Oil Boom” [1860s].  Pennsylvania History 66 (Autumn): 448-471.

Black, Brian.  2000.  Petrolia: The Landscape of America’s First Oil Boom [western Pa.].  Creating the North American Landscape series.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.  248 pp.

Blankenship, Sarah A.  2008.  “Cagle Saltpetre Cave in Van Buren County, Tennessee: The Archaeology of Nineteenth-Century Saltpeter Caves in the Midsouth” [gun powder; Civil War]. Chap. 13 in Cave Archaeology of the Eastern Woodlands: Essays in Honor of Patty Jo Watson.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Blatz, Perry K.  1994.  Democratic Miners: Work and Labor  Relations in the Anthracite Coal Industry, 1875-1925.  SUNY  Series in American Labor History.  Albany: State University of New York Press.  304  pp.

Blatz, Perry K.  1996.  “Workplace Militancy and Unionization: The UMWA and the Anthracite Miners, 1890-1912.”  In The United Mine Workers of America: A Model of Industrial Solidarity?, ed. J. Laslett, 51-71.  University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Blatz, Perry K.  1999.  “Titanic Struggles, 1873-1916" [coal, steel, strikes].  In Keystone of Democracy: A History of Pennsylvania Workers, ed. H. Harris, P. Blatz, 83-148, 158-160.  Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.

Blatz, Perry K.  2002.  “Reflections on Lattimer: A Complex and Significant Event” [1897 massacre of 19; anthracite region].  Pennsylvania History 69 (Winter): 42-51.

Blatz, Perry K.  2011.  “Boundaries of Responsibility: Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and the Pennsylvania Riot Damage Law, 1834-1880” [race and labor riots; 1877 railroad strike].  Pennsylvania History 78, no. 4 (Autumn): 393-425.

Blatz, Perry.  2011.  “Pittsburgh: The Fiery Scape Goat for the Country” [riot; July 21, 1877].  Western Pennsylvania History 94, no. 3 (Fall): 46-61, photos and lithographs.  Pennsylvania Rail Road (PRR) workers strike; burning of Union Depot; destruction of freight yards including 100 locomotives and 2,000 railroad cars; 25 dead; “...the most violently destructive 24 hours in Pittsburgh’s history.”

Blizzard, William C.  2005.  When Miners March: The Story of Coal Miners in West Virginia [1921; Battle of Blair Mountain].  Gay, W.Va.: Appalachian Community Services.  349 pp.

Blizzard, William C.  2006.  “Son of the Struggle: A Visit with William C. Blizzard” [b. 1916; son of Bill Blizzard, UMW leader during the West Virginia Mine Wars and 1921 Battle of Blair Mountain].  Interview by C. Belmont 'Chuck' Keeney.  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 32, no. 2 (Summer): 20-25.  Sidebar, “Blair Mountain: A Brief Overview,” by Gordon Simmons, 26.

Blizzard, William C.  2010.  When Miners March.  Edited by Wess Harris.  Oakland, Calif.: PM Press.  407 pp.  Expanded version of the 2004 edition.  Battle of Blair Mountain, 1921 armed insurrection; W.Va. Mine Wars.

Brown, Marilyn A.  2009.  Energy Efficiency in Appalachia: How Much More Is Available, At What Cost, and By When? [online resource].  Washington, D.C.: Appalachian Regional Commission.  235 pp.  Prepared by Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance, in partnership with the Georgia Institute of Technology, American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, and Alliance to Save Energy.  http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS125456.

Boal, William M.  2006.  “New Estimates of Paid-up Membership in the United Mine Workers, 1902–29, by State and Province” [reconciles industry and union data].  Labor History 47, no. 4 (November): 537-546.

Bogart, Mary, and William C. Hattan.  2000.  Conquering the Appalachians: Building the Western Maryland and Carolina, Clinchfield & Ohio Railroads through the Appalachian Mountains: Taken from the Journals, Records, and Photographs of William C. Hattan, a Civil Engineer Who Built Much of It.  Rochester, N.Y.: Railroad Research Publications.  206 pp.

Bonasso, Russell F.  2003.  Fire in the Hole [b. 1922; retrospective on coal camp life; appendix lists historic U.S. coal mine disasters, 1839-2000].  Fairmont, W.Va.: R. F. Bonasso.  194 pp.

Bondurant, Lewis.  2009. “Echoes of Buffalo Creek: Lewis Bondurant” [deadly 1972 flood; Logan Co.].  Interview by Margo Blevin Denton.  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 35, no. 4 (Winter): 18-25.  This is the third of three articles comprising a Special Report, pp. 9-25.

Bone, J. H. A.  [1865] 2006.  Petroleum and Petroleum Wells; What Petroleum Is, Where It Is Found, and What It Is Used For; Where to Sink Petroleum Wells, and How to Sink Them: With a Complete Guide Book and Description of the Oil Regions of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Kentucky and Ohio.  2nd rev. ed.  Chicora, Pa.: Mechling Bookbindery.  Reprint, originally published: Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co.  153 pp.

Booker, Clyde G.  2010.  Dyin’ for a Job: An American Tragedy [1930s Hawk’s Nest Tunnel project; W.Va.; black laborers; silicosis].  Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall Hunt.  166 pp.

Bossen, Howard, and Eric Freedman.  2012.  “‘Molten Light: The Intertwined History of Steel and Photography’-- The Roles of Oral Histories and Other First-Person Accounts.”  Oral History Review 39, no. 1 (Winter-Spring): 1-14.

Bowman, John.  2008.  Wheeling: The Birthplace of the American Steamboat.  Wheeling, W.Va.: J. Bowman.  103 pp.  Steamboat building history, 1815-1900; Ohio River, Monongahela River.

Bowman, John.  2009.  A Pictorial History of Wheeling and Ohio River Steamboats [W.Va., Ohio, Pa.].  Wheeling, W.Va.: J. Bowman.  370 pp.  “A guide to the steamboats on the upper Ohio River from the 1850s through the 1940s, arranged alphabetically by the name of the boat. Includes over 400 illustrations.”

Bowman, John.  2010.  Steamboats on the Western Rivers in the Civil War.  Wheeling, W.Va: John Bowman.  114 pp.  Includes contemporary photographs of gun-boats and their histories, and a list of 500 river steamboats that served both sides in the war.

Boyer, Peter J.  2002.  “Rescue at Quecreek” [Pa.; nine trapped miners].  New Yorker 78, 18 November, 56-73.

Bragg, Melody.  1998.  Window to the Past: Part IV: Southern W.Va. Mine Disasters [and other historic events].  Glen Jean, W.Va.: GEM Publications.  89 pp.

Brannon, Charles E.  2007.  “Tales of a B&O Fireman” [1947; steam locomotives; Shinnston].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 33, no. 4: 22-27.

Brasier, Kathryn J., et al.  2011.  “Residents’ Perceptions of Community and Environmental Impacts from Development of Natural Gas in the Marcellus Shale: A Comparison of Pennsylvania and New York Cases.”  Journal of Rural Social Sciences 26, no. 1: 32-61.  http://www.ag.auburn.edu/auxiliary/srsa/pages/TOCs/JRSS%20vol26-1.htm.

Brattain, Michelle.  1997.  “‘A Town as Small as That’: Tallapoosa, Georgia and Operation Dixie, 1945-1950"  [Haralson Co.; textile industry].  Georgia Historical Quarterly 81 (Summer): 395-425.

Brattain, Michelle.  1997.  “Making Friends and Enemies: Textile Workers and Political Action in Post-World War II Georgia” [Floyd County].  The Journal of Southern History 63 (February): 91-138.

Brice, William R.  2009.  Myth, Legend, Reality: Edwin Laurentine Drake and the Early Oil Industry.  Foreword by Brent D. Glass, Director, Smithsonian National Museum of American History.  Oil City, Pa.: Oil Region Alliance of Business, Industry & Tourism.  661 pp.

Brino, Anthony, and Brian Nearing.  2011.  “Shale Gas Fracking without the Hazards.”  Daily Yonder, 7 November.  2,143 words, plus map; “Lower 48 States Shale Plays”; and diagram comparing conventional fracking with more advantageous liquid propane fracking.  http://www.dailyyonder.com/getting-gas-without-hazards/2011/11/07/3590.

Brisbin, Richard A.  [2002] 2010.  A Strike Like No Other Strike: Law & Resistance During the Pittston Coal Strike of 1989-1990 [Va., W.Va., Ky.].  Morgantown: West Virginia University Press.  350 pp.  Originally published: Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Brisbin, Richard A., Jr.  2002.  A Strike Like No Other Strike: Law and Resistance during the Pittston Coal Strike of 1989-1990.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.  350 pp.

Brook, Tom Vanden.  2006.  “Recruits Hungry for Good Jobs Head Off to Coal Mines” [W.Va.; increased demand for coal and miners; recent Sago disaster].  USA Today, 15 February, 1(B).  http://www.usatoday.com/money/economy/employment/2006-02-14-miners-cover-usat_x.htm.

Brosi, George.  2012.  “The War on Coal: An Editorial.”  Appalachian Heritage 40, no. 4 (Fall): 8-9.  “...leaders of the coal business [need] to work with environmentalists to devise laws that...protect the environment...in a way that minimizes...excess hassle for coal operators.”

Brown, Earl E.  2010.  Commerce on Early American Waterways: The Transport of Goods by Arks, Rafts and Log Drives [Pa.].  Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland.  234 pp.  Contents: Introduction: The use of rivers and streams to transport heavy loads to market -- Early colonial America -- The Susquehanna is opened to the Chesapeake Bay -- Arks on the Penns Creek -- Waterways from 1791 to the early 1800s -- Rafting on the North Branch [Susquehanna] -- Rafting on the Main Branch -- Rafts on the West Branch -- Tales of the West Branch -- Log driving -- Woodhicks -- The Mississippi watershed -- Appendix: Ark and raft construction.

Brown, Edwin L., and Colin J. Davis, ed.  1999.  It Is Union and Liberty: Alabama Coal Miners and the UMW [1898-1998]. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.  184 pp.

Brown, Fred.  1995.  “Tillman Cadle: Mountain Warrior.”  Appalachian Heritage 23 (Fall): 35-45.

Brown, Fred.  2008.  Steam in the Heart: Life and Times Along the Morehead & North Fork Rails [Rowan Co., Ky.; 1887-2008].  Nicholasville, Ky.: Wind Publications.  176 pp.

Brown, Patrick.  2010.  Industrial Pioneers: Scranton, Pennsylvania, and the Transformation of America, 1840-1902 [Lackawanna Co.; iron, coal, railroads].  Archbald, Pa.: Tribute Books.  131 pp.

Bruno, Robert.  1999.  “Everyday Constructions of Culture and Class: The Case of Youngstown Steelworkers [Ohio; 1944-1979].  Labor History 40 (May): 143-176.

Buckley, Geoffrey L.  2004.  Extracting Appalachia: Images of the Consolidation Coal Company, 1910-1945 [interprets 92 photos from Smithsonian’s vast CCC archive].  Athens: Ohio University Press.  215 pp.

Buckley, Geoffrey L., and Timothy G. Anderson.  1999.  “The Consolidation Coal Company Photograph Collection, 1910-1945.”  Appalachian Journal 27 (Fall): 62-83.

Bumgarner, Matthew C.  1996.  Legacy of the Carolina & North-Western Railway.  Johnson City, Tenn.: The Overmountain Press.  190 pp.

Burdette, Cody A.  2003.  “The Section Man” [1944 Fayette Co.; warm boyhood memories of a black “maintenance of way” railroad worker].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 29 (Fall): 36-37.

Burdette, Cody A.  2004.  “The BC&G and the Last Stand of Steam” [Buffalo Creek and Gauley Railroad; 1950s Clay Co.].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 30 (Fall): 24-29.

Burns, Daniel J.  2007.  Homestead and the Steel Valley.  Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia.  127 pp.  Photo-retrospective; Monongahela Valley, Pa.

Burns, Daniel.  2006.  “Pittsburgh’s Rivers: A Glimpse into History, Travel, and Adventure” [Allegheny, Ohio, Monongahela; 18th-century to present].  Western Pennsylvania History 89, no. 1 (Spring): 12-17.

Burns, Shirley Stewart, Mari-Lynn Evans, and Silas House, ed.  2009.  Coal Country: Rising Up against Mountaintop Removal Mining.  San Francisco: Sierra Club Books.  294 pp.  This manifesto, a companion book to the documentary film of the same title, includes images, commentary, oral history, and 44 essays by writers including Wendell Berry, Silas House, Denise Giardina, Robert F. Kennedy Jr., Ken Hechler, Erik Reece, Jack Spadaro, Ashley Judd, George Ella Lyon, Kathy Mattea, Michael Shnayerson, John Hennen, Jeff Goodell, Jeff Biggers, Penny Loeb, Mary Anne Hitt, Ann Pancake, Maria Gunnoe, Larry Gibson, and Julia “Judy” Bonds.  Photos by Builder Levy, Jim Clark, Mark Schmerling, Vivian Stockman, and others.

Burns, Shirley Stewart.  2007.  Bringing Down the Mountains: The Impact of Mountaintop Removal Surface Coal Mining on Southern West Virginia Communities, 1970-2004 [authoritative study].  West Virginia and Appalachia series, no. 5.  Morgantown: West Virginia. University Press.  232 pp.

Burns, Shirley Stewart.  2009.  “Mountaintop Removal in Central Appalachia.”  Southern Spaces, 30 September [online photo-essay].  “Adapted speech and excerpt from her book.”  http://southernspaces.org/2009/mountaintop-removal-central-appalachia.

Burns, Shirley Stewart.  2009.  “To Dance with the Devil: The Social Impact of Mountaintop Removal Surface Coal Mining.”  In Culture, Class, and Politics in Modern Appalachia: Essays in Honor of Ronald L. Lewis, ed. J. Egolf, K. Fones-Wolf, and L. Martin, 305-328.  Morgantown: West Virginia University Press.

Burton, Mark L, Richard V. Hatcher, and Thomas Maraffa, section editors.  2006.  “Transportation” [signed entries].  In Encyclopedia of Appalachia, ed. R. Abramson and J. Haskell, 685-725 (with introductory essay, 685-690).  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Bush, Darrell.  2009.  “‘Hand Tools and Hard Work’: Oil and Gas Man Darrell Bush” [b. 1921; Gilmer Co.].  Interview by Richard S. Bailey.  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 35, no. 4 (Winter): 33-37.

Butler, Tom, and George Wuerthner, ed.  2009.  Plundering Appalachia: The Tragedy of Mountaintop-Removal Coal Mining [essays and large-format color photographs of devastated sites].  San Rafael, Calif.: Earth Aware.  208 pp.  Essayists include: Wendell Berry, John Blair, Teri Blanton, Judy Bonds, Tom Butler, Harry Caudill, Samir Doshi, Kai Erikson, Lisa Evans, Ross Gelbspan, Denise Giardina, Maria Gunnoe, Jerry Hardt, Ken Hechler, Richard Heinberg, Mary Ann Hitt, Rebecca Howell, Mary Hufford, Robert F. Kennedy, Jr., Pam Maggard, Chad Montrie, David Orr, Carl Pope, Cindy Rank, Erik Reece, Jack Spadaro, Vivian Stockman, Lucious Thompson, Douglas Tompkins, Carol Warren, Matthew Wasson, and George Wuerthner.

Bye, Ole.  2007.  “Era Incognita: What Will Happen to Appalachia?” [essay].  Nantahala: A Review of Writing and Photography in Appalachia 3, no. 2 (Summer/Fall): Photography section.  600 words.  http://nantahalareview.org/issue3-2/photo/index.html.

Byer, Alan.  2006.  “Recalling Bob Caruthers: Last of the BC&G Steam Railroaders” [1964; Clay Co., W.Va.; “demise of the last steam-powered common carrier east of the Mississippi”].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 32, no. 4 (Winter): 10-16.  Sidebar, “Buffalo Creek & Gauley Railroad,” 17.

Cameron, Laurie.  2011.  “The Howes Tannery: Making Leather in Pocahontas County” [1903-1994].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 37, no. 3 (Fall): 50-61.  “...largest producer of shoe sole leather in the world.”  Sidebar on “DeFord’s Tannery at Berkeley Springs,” by Jeanne Mozier, 57.  Eight-step photoessay on the “Tanning Process” (c. 1972), 58-61.

Caplinger, Michael.  1997.  Bridges Over Time: A Technological Context for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Main Stem at Harpers Ferry, West Virginia [railroad bridges; transportation].  Monograph Series. Morgantown, W.Va.: Institute for the History of Technology and Industrial Archaeology, West Virginia University.

Carlisle, Fred.  1999.  “Insiders, Outsiders, and the Struggle for Community” [opposition to proposed high-voltage power line bridging W.Va. and Va.].  Appalachian Journal 26 (Spring): 240-251.

Carlton, David L., and Peter Coclanis.  2005.  “Southern Textiles in Global Context” [1860s-1960s].  In Global Perspectives on Industrial Transformation in the American South, ed. S. Delfino and M. Gillespie, 151-174.  Columbia: University of Missouri Press.

Carpenter, Richard C.  2003.  A Railroad Atlas of the United States in 1946. Vol. 1, The Mid-Atlantic States [Pa., W.Va., Va., Md., Del., N.J., D.C.; 180 maps]. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.  297 pp.

Carson III, Homer S.  2005.  “Penal Reform and Construction of the Western North Carolina Railroad 1875-1892” [convict labor, Swannanoa tunnel, 1877-1879; tables].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 11, no. 1-2 (Spring-Fall): 205-225.

Casto, James E.  1995.  Towboat on the Ohio.  Ohio River Valley Series.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  184 pp.

Casto, James E.  2004.  Southern West Virginia Coal Country [vintage postcards, historical retrospective].  Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia.  128 pp.

Chafin, Andrew.  2008.  Ordinary Hero: Sid Hatfield: The Legend of Matewan [1893-1921].  Abingdon, Va.: Mate Creek Bookworks. 145 pp.

Churchill, Ward.  2004.  “From the Pinkertons to the PATRIOT Act: The Trajectory of Political Policing in the United States, 1870 to the Present.”  CR: The New Centennial Review 4, no. 1: 1-72.

Ciotola, Nicholas P.  2007.  “The Darkest Month: Coal Mining Disasters of December 1907” [Monongah, W.Va. and Darr, Pa.].  Western Pennsylvania History 90, no. 4 (Winter 2007-08): 24-33.

Clark, Daniel J.  1997.  Like Night & Day: Unionization in a Southern Mill Town.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  260 pp.

Clark, Paul F.  1996.  “Legacy of Democratic Reform: The Trumka Administration and the Challenge of the Eighties.”  In The United Mine Workers of America: A Model of Industrial Solidarity?, ed. J. Laslett, 459-483.  University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Clark, Sara.  2008.  “In the Shadow of the Fourth Circuit: Ohio Valley Environmental Coalition v. United States Army Corps of Engineers.”  Ecology Law Quarterly 35, no. 1 (February): 143-149.  Analysis of court ruling regarding violations of the Clean Water Act.

Clarke, Alan R.  2006.  The Western Maryland Railway in West Virginia: The Photographs of G. H. Broadwater [maps on lining papers].  Charleston, W.Va.: Quarrier Press.  176 pp.

Clarke, Alan R.  2008.  The West Virginia and Pittsburgh Railroad: The B & O’s Road to the Hardwoods [history; maps; photos].  Charleston, W.Va.: Quarrier Press.  224 pp.

Clarke, Alan.  2002.  West Virginia’s Coal and Coke Railway: A B&O Predecessor [1905-1917; Charleston to Elkins].  Lynchburg, Va.: TLC Publishing.  170 pp.

Clarke, Alan.  2003.  The West Virginia Central and Pittsburgh Railway: A Western Maryland Predecessor.  Lynchburg, Va.: TLC Publishing.  176 pp.

Clarke, Kevin.  1999.  “And Every Mountain Brought Low” [castigates mountaintop removal mining].  U.S. Catholic 64 (September): 23.

Coal-Mining ‘Dinosaurs’ Cling to Dark, Dangerous Life [AP story; Good Spring, Pa.; profiles families working their dwindling, privately-owned anthracite mines].  2004.  USA Today, 30 November.  http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2004-11-30-coal-miners_x.htm.

Cohen, Isaac.  1996.  “Monopoly, Competition, and Collective Bargaining: Pennsylvania and South Wales Compared.”  In The United Mine Workers of America: A Model of Industrial Solidarity?, ed. J. Laslett, 395-416.  University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Cohen, Nicole.  2012.  “A Disappearing Town In The Shadow Of Big Coal” [documentary photos of Franz Jantzen; Ohio Valley].  NPR News, 4 April.  Transcript.  715 words.  “Ten years ago this spring, the residents of Cheshire, Ohio, had a decision to make: They could stay in their homes and suffer the effects of pollution from a nearby coal-burning power plant; or they could let that plant’s owner buy them out and, building by building, dismantle their town.  In April 2002, they chose to sell.”  http://m.npr.org/news/front/149874232?singlePage=true.

Cole, David.  1996.  “Logging on Forney’s Creek” [Smoky Mountains, N.C.].  Appalachian Heritage 24 (Spring): 48-55.

Cole, Wayne A.  2005.  Ghost Rails, 1850-1980. Volume 1, Abandoned Railroads, Their Industries, Last Runs, Eastern Ohio and Western Pennsylvania.  Darlington, Pa.: ColeBooks.  144 pp.

Cole, Wayne A.  2005.  Ghost Rails. Volume II, Western Allegheny Railroad Company. Darlington, Pa.: ColeBooks.  224 pp.

Cole, Wayne A.  2007.  Ghost Rails. Volume III, Electrics of the Upper Ohio Valley [railways: Pa., Ohio, W.Va.].  Darlington, Pa.: ColeBooks.  312 pp.

Cole, Wayne A.  2008.  Ghost Rails. IV, Industrial Shortlines [western Pa.].  Darlington, Pa.: ColeBooks.  152 pp.

Collins, Alan R., Evan Hansen, and Michael Hendryx.  2012.  “Wind Versus Coal: Comparing the Local Economic Impacts of Energy Resource Development in Appalachia.”  Energy Policy 50 (November): 551-561.  Coal River Mountain, Raleigh County, W.Va.; mountaintop removal.

Combes, Richard S.  2001.  “Aircraft Manufacturing in Georgia: A Case Study of Federal Industrial Investment” [Bell Bomber plant; Marietta, Ga.].  In The Second Wave: Southern Industrialization from the 1940s to the 1970s, ed. P. Scranton, 24-42.  Athens: University of Georgia Press.

Cook, Jeffery.  2009.  “Mining Reform After Monongah: The Conservative Response to Mine Disasters” [1907 W.Va. mine explosion; U.S. Bureau of Mines establishment].  In Culture, Class, and Politics in Modern Appalachia: Essays in Honor of Ronald L. Lewis, ed. J. Egolf, K. Fones-Wolf, and L. Martin, 253-282.  Morgantown: West Virginia University Press.

Copeland, Claudia.  2005.  “Controversies over Redefining ‘Fill Material’ Under the Clean Water Act” [updated Feb. 2; coal mining overburden; mountaintop removal].  CRS Report for Congress RL31411.  Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.  12 pp.  http://opencrs.com/document/RL31411/.

Copeland, Claudia.  2005.  “Mountaintop Mining: Background on Current Controversies.”  CRS Report for Congress RS21421 [updated Feb. 1].  Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.  6 pp.  http://opencrs.com/document/RS21421/.

Corbin, David A.  2008.  “Coal Mining.”  In The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture, Vol. 11: Agriculture and Industry, 286-289.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Corbin, David Alan, ed.  2011.  Gun Thugs, Rednecks, and Radicals: A Documentary History of the West Virginia Mine Wars [1912-1921].  Oakland, Calif.: PM Press.  275 pp.  “... collects material from the leaders, the miners, and the journalists....Also included are U.S. Senate committee testimonies from miners and their family members describing life and work in the coal camps.”

Corso, Paola.  2008.  “Coke, Clairton, and Cancer: A Three-Decade Push for Reforms.”  Western Pennsylvania History 91, no. 1 (Spring): 40-49.  Landmark OSHA standard (1977) for lower coke emissions.  Clairton, Pa., is the largest producer of coke in the United States.

Cotham, Perry C.  1995.  Toil, Turmoil, & Triumph: A Portrait of the Tennessee Labor Movement.  Franklin, Tenn.: Hillsboro Press.  352 pp.  Including sections on child labor, convict labor, textile workers, coal miners, Depression years, CIO and ALCOA, Highlander Folk School, and more.

Council, R. Bruce, and Nicholas Honerkamp.  2000.  “Antebellum Iron: Bluff Furnace and the East Tennessee Iron Manufacturing Company” [1847-1860].  Tennessee Historical Quarterly 59 (Fall): 204-217.

Cox, Annette.  2012.  “The Loray, North Carolina’s ‘Million Dollar Mill’: The ‘Monstrous Hen’ of Southern Textiles” [Gastonia, N.C.; 1900-1935].  North Carolina Historical Review 89, no. 3 (July): 241-275.  Labor organizing, strikes (1919, 1934), and outsider management.

Cox, Thomas R.  2010.  The Lumberman’s Frontier: Three Centuries of Land Use, Society, and Change in America’s Forests.  Corvallis: Oregon State University Press.  531 pp.

Cramblet, Laura L., and Mort Gamble.  2011.  “The Bethany Trolley” [Brooke Co.].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 37, no. 2 (Summer): 16-23.  Wellsburg-to-Bethany trolley line [Bethany College], 1908-1929, through tunnels, over a viaduct, along Buffalo Creek Valley.

Crandall, William “Rick,” and Richard E. Crandall.  2002.  “Revisiting the Hawk’s Nest Tunnel Incident: Lessons Learned from an American Tragedy” [1930s W.Va.; 400 to 2000 silicosis deaths, majority black].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 8 (Fall): 261-283.

Crockett, Maureen. 2005.  “Follow the Coal: A Visit with Oreste Leombruno” [Italian American miner, 65; coke ovens].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 31, no. 3 (Fall): 6-13.

Crowell, Douglas L.  1997.  “Death Underground: The Millfield Mining Tragedy” [Ohio; 1930; 82 killed].  Timeline 14 (no. 5): 42-54.

Crowl, Thomas E.  2001.  “Cherry Valley’s Coke Ovens” [Register of Historic Places; Leetonia, Columbiana Co., Ohio].  Timeline: A Publication of the Ohio Historical Society 18 (July-August): 28-41.

Culvahouse, Tim, ed.  2007.  The Tennessee Valley Authority: Design and Persuasion.  New York: Princeton Architectural Press.  144 pp.  Eight essays.

Curra, Thomas M., and Greg Matkosky.  2002.  Stories from the Mines [anthracite coal; immigrants; 70 archival photos; companion documentary film (2000)].  Scranton, Pa.: University of Scranton Press.  82 pp.

Daniel, Clete.  2001.  Culture of Misfortune: An Interpretive History of Textile Unionism in the United States.  Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.  352 pp.

Darrah, William Culp.  [1972] 2006.  Pithole, the Vanished City: A Story of the Early Days of the Petroleum Industry [1865-1877; pop. 20,000; today a ghost town].  Oil City, Pa.: Oil Region Alliance.  252 pp.  Originally published: Gettysburg, Pa.

David, John P., and Jan Young.  2010.  “Mannington to Upper Big Branch: The Promise Betrayed.”  Appalachian Heritage 38, no. 3 (Summer): 49-59.  Coal mine explosions: Mannington [Farmington], W.Va., 1968 (78 dead); Upper Big Branch, W.Va., 2010 (29 dead).  Discusses UMWA reform and the 1960 Coal Mine Health and Safety Act, and more recent union busting, lack of safe working conditions, and Massey Energy.

David, John.  2010.  “Toughen Mining Regulations Now.”  Charleston Gazette, 19 April, Op-Ed Commentary.  900 words.  Upper Big Branch Mine disaster, 29 dead, April 5, 2010, Montcoal, W.Va.  Discusses dangerous loopholes allowed to evolve in the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 and the 1977 Federal Mine Safety and Health Act.  http://www.wvgazette.com/Opinion/OpEdCommentaries/201004190517.

Davidson, Cameron.  2007.  “SCARFACE” [photo essay: mountaintop removal mining].  Text by Michelle Nijhuis.  Audubon 109 (March/April): 76-83.

Davies, John.  1999.  “Authority, Community, and Conflict: Rioting and Aftermath in a Late-Nineteenth Century Pennsylvania Coal Town” [1888; Shenandoah; Schuylkill Co.].  Pennsylvania History 66 (Summer): 339-363.

Davis, Charles E., and Robert J. Duffy.  2009.  “King Coal vs. Reclamation Federal Regulation of Mountaintop Removal Mining in Appalachia” [Ky., W.Va.].  Administration & Society 41, no. 6 (October): 674-692.  “...analyzes President George W. Bush’s efforts to promote the development of coal resources...despite statutory constraints posed by federal environmental laws.”

Davis, George.  2009.  “Where Once There Were Mountains: The Grassroots Struggle Against Mountaintop Removal Coal Mining in Central Appalachia.”  Environmental Politics 18, no. 1: 135-140.

Davis, Robert S.  2005.  “The Story of the Georgia Marble Dynasty” [Pickens Co.; Georgia Marble Company, incorporated 1837].  Georgia History in Pictures.  Georgia Historical Quarterly 89, no. 3 (Fall): 368-388.

Dawson, Christopher J.  2008.  Steel Remembered: Photographs from the LTV Steel Collection. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press; published in cooperation with the Western Reserve Historical Society.  153 pp.  Contents: Making Steel – Corrigan, McKinney Steel –  Otis Steel – Republic Steel.

Dean, William H.  2007.  Coal, Steamboats, Timber and Trains: The Early Industrial History of St. Albans, West Virginia & the Coal River, 1850-1925.  Charleston, W.Va: Pictorial Histories.  250 pp.

Debbage, Keith G., and Jacob F. Kidd.  2011.  “Renewable Energy in North Carolina: The Potential Supply Chain and Connections to Existing Renewable and Energy Efficiency Firms.”  Southeastern Geographer 51, no. 1 (Spring): 69-88.  Wind, biomass/geothermal, and solar renewables “tightly concentrated along the I-85 corridor between Charlotte, the Triad and the Research Triangle region with significant outposts in Hickory, Wilmington and especially Asheville.”

DeKok, David.  [1986] 2000.  Unseen Danger: A Tragedy of People, Government, and the Centralia Mine Fire [Pa.; uncontrolled underground mine fire, ignited 1962].  San Jose, Calif.: ToExcel.  299 pp.  Originally published, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

DeKok, David.  2010.  Fire Underground: The Ongoing Tragedy of the Centralia Mine Fire.  Guilford, Conn.: Globe Pequot.  284 pp.  History of an underground anthracite coal mine fire burning since 1962 which has decimated the town of Centralia, Pa.

DellaMea, Christopher.  2010.  “Coalfields of the Appalachian Mountains: An Encyclopedia of Appalachian Coal Towns” [website].  http://coalcampusa.com/.  Maps and selected, captioned photos.  Contents: Western Pennsylvania -- Eastern Ohio -- Western Maryland -- Northern West Virginia -- Southern West Virginia -- Southwestern Virginia -- Eastern Kentucky -- Eastern Tennessee and Northern Alabama -- The Industrial Heartland: Coal’s Destination.

DellaMea, Christopher.  2010.  Exploring Appalachia’s Coalfields: West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Ohio, Virginia, Maryland.  San Francisco: Blurb.com.  71 pp.  “A photographic record of the coal camps...company stores, tipples, coke ovens, and rail yards that...comprised the historic landscape.”

DellaMea, Christopher.  2010.  Exploring the Rust Belt: Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, Indiana.  San Francisco: Blurb.com.  77 pp.  Industrial landscape photographs; Ohio River Valley.

DeMarchi, Jane.  1997.  Historical Mining Disasters [lists over 500 in the U.S. since 1900]. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration.  49 pp.

DiCiccio, Carmen.  1996.  Coal and Coke in Pennsylvania.  Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.  224 pp.  Industrial history, 1840-1945; southwestern Pa.

Dickinson, W. Calvin, and Patrick D. Reagan.  1998.  “Business, Labor, and the Blue Eagle: The Harriman Hosiery Mills Strike, 1933-1934.”  In Tennessee History: The Land, The People, and the Culture, ed. C. Van West, 391-412.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Dickinson, W. Calvin, and Patrick D. Reagan.  1996.  “Business, Labor, and the Blue Eagle: The Harriman Hosiery Mills Strike, 1933-1934” [Roane Co., Tenn.].  Tennessee Historical Quarterly 55 (Fall): 240-255.

Dionne, E. J.  2010.  “An Old, Sad Story at a West Virginia Mine.  Washington Post, 8 April, 21(A).  724 words.  Explosion and deaths of 29 at Upper Big Branch Mine in Montcoal.

Dix, Keith.  1996.  “Mechanization, Workplace Control, and the End of the Hand-Loading Era.”  In The United Mine Workers of America: A Model of Industrial Solidarity?, ed. J. Laslett, 167-200.  University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Dixon, Thomas W.  2002.  Steam Locomotive Coaling Stations and Diesel Locomotive Fueling Stations [photo-documentary].  Lynchburg, Va.: TLC Publishing.  80 pp.

Dixon, Thomas W.  2006.  Chesapeake & Ohio Railway in the Coal Fields of West Virginia and Kentucky: Mines - Towns - Trains.  Clifton Forge, Va.: Chesapeake & Ohio Historical Society.  108 pp.

Dixon, Thomas W.  2009.  West Virginia Railroads: Railroading in the Mountain State [Vol. 1; history to 1960s; pictorial].  Forest, Va.: TLC Publishing.  128 pp.  Contents: Foreword -- Introduction -- Baltimore and Ohio -- Chesapeake and Ohio -- Norfolk and Western -- Virginia -- New York Central (Kanawha and Michigan) -- Railroads in the Northern Panhandle -- Shortlines -- Logging Railroads.

Dixon, Thomas W.  2010.  West Virginia Railroads: Volume 2, Chesapeake & Ohio.  Forest, Va.: TLC Publishing.  144 pp.  Photos; late steam and early diesel periods.  Contents: Introduction -- Alleghany Sub-Division -- Greenbrier Sub-Division -- New River Sub-Division -- New River Branch Lines -- Kanawha Sub-Division -- Kanawha Branch Lines -- Passenger Trains.

Dixon, Thomas W.  2010.  West Virginia Railroads. Volume 2, Chesapeake & Ohio [1935-1965].  Forest, Va.: TLC Publishing.  144 pp.  Photos, maps, drawings.

Dixon, Thomas W.  2012.  West Virginia Railroads, Vol. 5: Geared Logging Locomotives [pictorial].  Forest, Va.: TLC Pub. Inc.  “...a general history of the geared Shay, Climax, and Heisier type locomotives that were so prevalent...from 1890s until the 1950s.”

Dixon, Thomas W., comp.  2007.  Chessie System Railroads in West Virginia [pictorial; locomotives; map]. Clifton Forge, Va: Chesapeake & Ohio Historical Society.  64 pp.

Dotson-Lewis, Betty L.  2007.  Sago Mine Disaster: Appalachian Coalfield Stories [Jan. 2, 2006; Tallmansville, W.Va.; 12 dead, one survivor].  West Conshohocken, Pa.: Infinity Publishing.  301 pp.

Dotter, Earl.  1998.  The Quiet Sickness: A Photographic Chronicle of Hazardous Work in America [150 photographs, many of coal miners].  Fairfax, Va: American Industrial Hygiene Association.  153 pp.

Drobney, Jeffrey A.  1997.  Lumbermen and Log Sawyers: Life, Labor, and Culture in the North Florida Timber Industry, 1830-1930 [southern timber industry].  Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press.  241 pp.

Dublin, Thomas, and Melissa Doak.  2001.  “Miner’s Son, Miners’ Photographer: The Life and Work of George Harvan” [online magazine; links to 280 photographs, oral history audio, essays; Pa.’s anthracite coal region, 1946-99].  The Journal for MultiMedia History 3:(2000).  http://www.albany.edu/jmmh.

Dublin, Thomas, and Walter Licht.  2005.  The Face of Decline: The Pennsylvania Anthracite Region in the Twentieth Century.  Ithaca: Cornell University Press.  277 pp.

Dublin, Thomas; photographs by George Harvan.  1998.  When the Mines Closed: Stories of Struggles in Hard Times [Pa. anthracite region; 90 interviews; 80 photos].  Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.  257 pp.

Durden, Robert F.  1999.  “Electrifying the Piedmont Carolinas: The Beginning of the Duke Power Company, 1904-1925: Part 1” [including electrification of cotton mills].  North Carolina Historical Review 76 (October): 410-440.

Dye, Steve.  2009.  “Building Rigs the Old Way: Oilman U.S. Dye” [b. 1880; Wood Co.; derricks erected for drillers].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 35, no. 4 (Winter): 26-32.

Eckholm, Erik.  2010.  “A Mining Bellwether.”  New York Times, 15 July, 16(A).  1,251 words.  Reprinted in Appalachian Journal 38, no. 1 (Fall): 5-8.  Obama’s E.P.A. and Arch Coal’s Spruce 1 mountaintop removal proposal showdown/test case at Pigeonroost Hollow, W.Va. -- previously permitted by the Army Corps of Engineers in 2007.

Edwards, Pamela C.  2004.  “Southern Industrialization and Northern Industrial Networks: The New South Textile Industry in Columbia and Lyman, South Carolina” [Spartanburg].  South Carolina Historical Magazine 105 (October): 282-305.

Eelman, Bruce W.  2008.  Entrepreneurs in the Southern Upcountry: Commercial Culture in Spartanburg, South Carolina, 1845-1880.  Athens: University of Georgia Press.  313 pp.

Eggert, Gerald G.  2000.  Making Iron on the Bald Eagle: Roland Curtin’s Ironworks and Workers’ Community [Centre Co., Pa.; 1810-1922].  University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.  189 pp.

Egolf, Jennifer, Ken Fones-Wolf, and Louis C. Martin, ed.  2009.  Culture, Class, and Politics in Modern Appalachia: Essays in Honor of Ronald L. Lewis.  Morgantown: West Virginia University Press.  347 pp.  Twelve papers delivered at WVU’s 2007 U.S. Senator Rush Holt Conference, “Transforming Appalachian Scholarship: A Conference Honoring the Contributions of Ronald L. Lewis” [WVU History Dept., 1979-2007].

Egolf, Jennifer.  2009.  “Radical Challenge and Conservative Triumph: The Struggle to Define American Identity in the Somerset County Coal Strike, 1922-1923” [Pa.; culture change; native-born immigrants; Red Scare].  In Culture, Class, and Politics in Modern Appalachia: Essays in Honor of Ronald L. Lewis, ed. J. Egolf, K. Fones-Wolf, and L. Martin, 88-117.  Morgantown: West Virginia University Press.

Eilperin, Juliet.  2011.  “Coal Mining Provides Conundrum for Obama ” [coal production moves west; Powder River Basin, Wyo., Mont.].  Washington Post, 26 December, 2(A).  1,373 words.  Photo gallery, map, chart.  “Central Appalachia now produces just 17 percent of the nation’s coal compared with 70 percent in the 1970s....operators are concerned about what they’ll do when they’re finished mining on their current permits.”

Elkins, Crystal.  2009.  “Echoes of Buffalo Creek: Leon Ball” [recollections of 1972 flood disaster; Logan Co.].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 35, no. 4 (Winter): 14-17.  This is the second of three articles comprising a Special Report, pp. 9-25.

Ellis, Ruddy.  2002.  “The Dick’s Creek Tunnel” [history of mysterious, pre-Civil War, unfinished Blue Ridge Railroad tunnel; Ga.].  Interview by student Jonathan Garland.  Foxfire Magazine 36 (Spring/Summer): 70-80.

Ellis, Ruddy.  2009.  “Historical Railroads” [drilling Stumphouse Mountain Tunnel and Dick’s Creek Tunnel, Rabun Co., Ga.; diagrams].  Interview by Brandi Allen.  Foxfire Magazine 43, no. 1-2 (Spring/Summer): 63-77.

English, Beth Anne.  2006.  A Common Thread: Labor, Politics, and Capital Mobility in the Textile Industry [Ala.].  Politics and Culture in the Twentieth-Century South.  Athens: University of Georgia Press.  236 pp.

English, Beth.  2005.  “Beginnings of the Global Economy: Capital Mobility and the 1890s U.S. Textile Industry.”  In Global Perspectives on Industrial Transformation in the American South, ed. S. Delfino and M. Gillespie, 175-198.  Columbia: University of Missouri Press.

Epstein, Paul R., Jonathan J. Buonocore, Kevin Eckerle, Michael Hendryx, et al.  2011.  “Full Cost Accounting for the Life Cycle of Coal” [Appalachian focus].  Annals of the New York Academy Of Sciences 1219,  no. 1 (February): 73-98.  Seven charts, 1 graph, 3 maps.  “Each stage in the life cycle of coal-extraction, transport, processing, and combustion-generates a waste stream....We estimate that the life cycle effects of coal and the waste stream generated are costing the U.S. public a third to over one-half of a trillion dollars annually....making wind, solar, and other forms of nonfossil fuel power generation...economically competitive.”

Estep, Bill.  2011.  “100 Years of Coal Mining in Harlan County.”  Lexington Herald-Leader, 21 August.  2,083 words.  Historic photo, statistical charts, related stories.  http://www.kentucky.com/2011/08/21/1852406/100-years-of-coal-in-harlan-county.html#disqus_thread.

Estep, Janet.  2010.  “Danger in the Hole: 1958 Mine Rescue Team.”  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 36, no. 1 (Spring): 34-39.  Nicholas County explosion; 14 dead; Richwood Sewell Mine.

Evans, Curtis J.  2001.  The Conquest of Labor: Daniel Pratt and Southern Industrialization [1799-1873; textiles; Prattville, Ala.].  Southern Biography Series.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.  337 pp.

Ewen, Linda Ann.  2006.  “The Great Anti-Injunction Strike of 1976: Context and Implications for Appalachia” [record wildcat coal strike; social injustices].  Ch. 7 in Radicalism in the South since Reconstruction, ed. C. Green, R. Rubin, and J. Smethurst, 147-165.  New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Ezzell, Patricia Bernard.  2003.  TVA Photography: Thirty Years of Life in the Tennessee Valley [1933-1963; by TVA’s official historian; photographs by Lewis Hine, Charles Krutch, Emil Sienknecht, and Billy Glenn].  Jackson: University Press of Mississippi.  177 pp.

Ezzell, Patricia Bernard.  2008.  TVA Photography, 1963-2008: Challenges and Changes in the Tennessee Valley.  Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. 192 pp.  Sequel to TVA Photography: Thirty Years of Life in the Tennessee Valley (2003).

Fagge, Roger.  1996.  Power, Culture and Conflict in the Coalfields: West Virginia and South Wales, 1900-22.  Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press.  290 pp.

Fahlman, Betsy and Eric Jon Schruers, ed.  2008.  Wonders of Work and Labor: The Steidle Collection of American Industrial Art [steel and coal art collection].  University Park, Pa: Earth and Mineral Sciences Museum & Art Gallery [Pennsylvania State University].  176 pp.  Contents: Foreword / Russell Wm. Graham --  The art of industry: themes of labor, technology, and process in American art / Betsy Fahlman -- Bessemer blasts and coal tipples: the art of Pennsylvania industry / Betsy Fahlman and Eric Schruers -- Edward Steidle and the creation of the industrial art collection / Eric Schruers -- Selected bibliography -- Color plates [76 plates] -- Steidle collection catalog, 1928-1953.

Failing, Anne.  2000.  “The Lonaconing Silk Mill, 1907-1957: An Allegany High School, Maryland, Student Service Alliance Oral History.”  Labor’s Heritage (Fall 1999/Winter 2000): 54-75.

Fallows, James.  2010.  “Dirty Coal, Clean Coal.”  Atlantic Monthly 306, no. 5 (December): 64-78.  http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2010/12/dirty-coal-clean-future/8307/ [includes a four-minute video interview].

Fannin, Mark.  2003.  Labor’s Promised Land: Radical Visions of Gender, Race, and Religion in the South.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.  355 pp.

Feather, Carl E.  2007.  LH&W Railroad: The Mason Family’s Backyard Train” [steam-powered excursionary railroad; Clarksburg].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 33, no. 4 (Winter): 34-39.

Feather, Carl E.  2012.  “The Lady is a Fireman: Amy McGrew of Cass.”  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 38, no. 1 (Spring): 32-37.  Cass Scenic Railroad, Pocahontas County.

Feldman, Glenn.  2011.  “You Know What it Means to Have 9,000 Negroes Idle: Rethinking the Great 1908 Alabama Coal Strike.”  Alabama Review 64, no. 3 (July): 175-223.  “...the union’s indulgence of racism early in the strike did affect the quality and tenor of working-class and community support for the strikers.”

Ferrandiz, Susan, creator.  2001?  McIntyre, Pennsylvania: The Everyday Life of a Coal Mining Company Town: 1910-1947 [Website; photos, documents, letters, bibliography, related websites].  http://www.mcintyrepa.com/frontpage.htm.

Filippelli, Ronald L.  1999.  “Colonial Work, Colonial Workers.”  In Keystone of Democracy: A History of Pennsylvania Workers, ed. H. Harris, P. Blatz, 1-36.  Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.

Fink, Leon.  2006.  “When Community Comes Home to Roost: The Southern Milltown as Lost Cause” [Cooleemee, N.C.].  Journal of Social History 40, no. 1: 119-145.

Fischer, Karin. 2004. “Boon or Boondoggle” [Appalachian Development Highway System: 26 corridors] Planning 70 (May): 30-33.

Fischetti, Mark.  2010.  “The Drillers Are Coming” [natural gas].  Scientific American 303, no. 1 (July): 82-85.  Hydraulic fracturing; Marcellus Shale; N.Y. to Tenn.

Fishback, Price V.  1995.  “An Alternative View of Violence in Labor Disputes in the Early 1900s: The Bituminous Coal Industry, 1890-1930.”  Labor History 36 (Summer): 426-456.

Fishback, Price V.  1996.  “The Miner’s Work Environment: Safety and Company Towns in the Early 1900s.”  In The United Mine Workers of America: A Model of Industrial Solidarity?, ed. J. Laslett, 201-223.  University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Fitzgerald, Jenrose.  2012.  “The Messy Politics of ‘Clean Coal’: The Shaping of a Contested Term in Appalachia’s Energy Debate.”  Organization & Environment 25, no. 4 (December): 437-451.

Flanary, Ron, Dave Oroszi, and Garland McKee.  1990.  The Louisville and Nashville in the Appalachians: A Look at the Corbin Division and Its Predecessors.  Silver Spring, Md.: Old Line Graphics.  128 pp.  Captioned, color photos of the trains; essays; maps: Cincinnati, Kentucky, Cumberland Valley, Knoxville, and Atlanta.

Flannery, James L.  2009.  The Glass House Boys of Pittsburgh: Law, Technology, and Child Labor [glass industry; 19th-century to 1915].  Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press.  224 pp.

Flynn, Sean.  2009.  “Black Tide” [TVA’s Kingston, Tenn., coal ash pond collapse and billion gallon flood, Dec. 22, 2008].  GQ Feature.  Republished at: http://www.truthout.org/060409EA.

Folmar, John Kent.  2009.  California, Pa., 1849-1881: The History of a Boat Building Town: Steamboats, Including Transports, Tinclads & Rams in the Civil War; Education, Politics, Temperance, Religion, and Social Life, &c. [Washington Co., Pa.].  California, Pa.: Yohogania Press.  466 pp.

Fones-Wolf, Elizabeth, and Ken Fones-Wolf.  2012.  “Religion, Human Relations, and Union Avoidance in the 1950s: The Electrical Industry’s Southern Strategy and Its Limits” [GE, Westinghouse, Magnavox, and Singer].  Enterprise & Society 13, no. 1 (March): 154-185.  Case studies of organizing drives in Rome, Ga., and Greeneville, Tenn.

Fones-Wolf, Ken.  2007.  Glass Towns: Industry, Labor, and Political Economy in Appalachia, 1890-1930s.  The Working Class in American History.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press.  236 pp.  Labor history; W.Va.: Moundsville, Clarksburg, Fairmont.

Fones-Wolf, Elizabeth, and Ken Fones-Wolf.  2003.  “Cold War Americanism: Business, Pageantry, and Antiunionism in Weirton, West Virginia.”  Business History Review 77 (Spring): 61-91.

Fones-Wolf, Ken.  1995.  “A Craftsman’s Paradise in Appalachia: Glassworkers and the Transformation of Clarksburg, 1900-1933.”  Journal of Appalachian Studies 1 (Fall): 67-85.

Fones-Wolf, Ken.  1996.  “From Craft to Industrial Unionism in the Window-Glass Industry: Clarksburg, West Virginia, 1900-1937.”  Labor History 37 (Winter, 1995-96): 28-49.

Fones-Wolf, Ken.  1999.  “An Industrial Giant Takes Shape, 1800-1872.”  In Keystone of Democracy: A History of Pennsylvania Workers, ed. H. Harris, P. Blatz, 37-74, 80-81.  Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.

Fones-Wolf, Ken.  2000.  “Work, Culture and Politics in Industrializing West Virginia: The Glassworkers of Clarksburg and Moundsville, 1891-1919” [7,350 employed by 1910 -- 800 more than iron and steel].  West Virginia History 58 (1999-2000): 1-23.

Fones-Wolf, Ken.  2004.  “Transatlantic Craft Migrations and Transnational Spaces: Belgian Window Glass Workers in America, 1880-1920.”  Labor History 45 (August): 299-321.  Craft communities: southwestern Pa., northern W.Va.

Foster, Debbie, and Jack Kennedy.  2006.  H.J. Heinz Company [photo retrospective; Pittsburgh; biography].  Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia.  127 pp.  Heinz, H. J. (Henry John), 1844-1919.  Contents: The founder’s dream | The commitment to quality | The test of hard times | The postwar boom | New brands and new businesses | Global expansion | The premier global food company.

Fox, Maier B.  1996.  “Afterword: Prospects for the UMWA.”  In The United Mine Workers of America: A Model of Industrial Solidarity?, ed. J. Laslett, 545-554.  University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Fracking: A Roundtable [plenary session from the 2012 Appalachian Studies Association Annual Conference, Indiana, Pa.].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 18, no. 1-2 (Spring-Fall): 31-47.  Presentations: Shale gas development issues / Ronald E. Bishop -- Environmental impacts of horizontal gas well drilling and hydrological fracturing / David J. Lampe -- Monitoring a public water resource exposed to Marcellus Shale development: the case of Beaver Run Reservoir [Westmoreland Co. Pa.] / Brian W. Okey -- The shale rush / Tom Wilber -- Pennsylvania’s fracking land grab: threats and opportunities” [Monongahela and Allegheny River watersheds contamination] / Myron Arnowitt.

Fracking: Gas Drilling’s Environmental Threat (series).  2008–  .  ProPublica: Journalism in the Public Interest.  Web site with dozens of informative articles, feature stories, comments, graphics, and multimedia links.  http://www.propublica.org/series/fracking.

Fraley, Jill M.  2012.  “The Political Rhetoric of Property and Natural Resource Ownership: A Meditation on Chance, Taxation and Appalachia.”  Society and Natural Resources 25, no. 2 (February): 127-140.  Compares “alternative methods of natural resource ownership in the United States and Australia.”

Frederickson, Mary E.  2011.  Looking South: Race, Gender, and the Transformation of Labor from Reconstruction to Globalization.  Gainesville: University Press of Florida.  302 pp.  Contents: Introduction: labor transformation and networks of resistance | Labor, race, and Homer Plessy’s freedom claim | Transformation and resistance: a war of images in the post-Plessy South | “I got so mad, I just had to get something off my chest”: the contested terrain of women’s organizations in the American South | Beyond heroines and girl strikers: gender and organized labor in the South | Labor looks south: theory and practice in Southern textile organizing | “Living in two worlds”: civil rights and Southern textiles | Transformation and resistance in the nueva New South | Back to the future: mapping workers across the global South | Coda: Southern workers on the world stage.

Freese, Barbara.  2003.  Coal: A Human History [from ancient times to present].  Cambridge, Mass.: Perseus Publishing.  308 pp.

French, Buddy.  1999.  “My First Night in the Mines” [1966; McDowell Co.].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 25 (Winter): 25-35.

Friend, Daniel J.  2003.  “The Norwalk: Martinsburg’s Motor Car” [Norwalk Motor Car Company, 1912-1922].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 29 (Summer): 30-37.

Fuchs, Steve, with Rick Acton.  2011.  My C&O: The Transition of Chesapeake & Ohio Railway into CSX Transportation [photos; history; Oh., Ky., and W.Va.].  Dayton, Ohio: St Alban Media.  160 pp.

Fultz, Arnold.  2008.  Fixing the Ungodly Mess: A Pathway to Change [coal and devastation].  Bloomington, Ind.: AuthorHouse.  251 pp.

Futej, Gerald M., and Max S. Robin, ed.  2007.  100 Years and Still Counting: The Town of Cass, WV [illustrated history].  West Chester, Pa.: Greenhill Station Productions.  100 pp.  Ten essays, historic photos, and documents tell the story of this important railroad and lumber company town in Pocahontas County, W.Va.

Futej, Gerald M., and Max S. Robin, ed.  2010.  Western Maryland Railway Shay No. 6: The Last Shay Built by Lima.  West Chester, Pa.: Greenhill Station Publications.  104 pp.  Contents: Short trains and stiff grades / by George A. Fizer -- Birth of the big six / by Fred Bartels -- WM Shay on heavy grades / compiled by Gerald M. Futej -- Obituary for a locomotive / compiled by Gerald M. Futej -- Baltimore’s sleeping giant / by Don McFall -- From Baltimore to Cass / by Fred Bartels -- Going home / by Jerry Moyer -- Two locomotives for Cass / by Max S. Robin -- Restoration of the big six / by Fred Bartels -- Arch tubes or siphons / by Gerald M. Futej -- Shay no. 6 returns to service / by Gerald M. Futej.

Futej, Gerald M., and Max S. Robin, ed.  2010.  Western Maryland Railway Shay No. 6: The Last Shay Built by Lima.  West Chester, Pa.: Greenhill Station Publications.  104 pp.  Eleven essays; Steam locomotives; b&w pictorial.

Gabriel, H. William.  2000.  “Robert S. Hickman: Keeping the Company Store,” 45-46; “Frank Edwin Mower: Keeping Cass Alive,” 47-49.  [railroad and timber company town; today a tourist center].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 26 (Summer): 45-49.

Galuszka, Peter A.  2012.  Thunder on the Mountain: Death at Massey and the Dirty Secrets Behind Big Coal.  New York: St. Martin’s Press.  283 pp.  Contents: Death at Upper Big Branch | Renegade CEO | Up the Hollow | The roots of Massey Energy | Big Coal’s ugly and bright future | Strip-mining on steroids | Dark as a dungeon | Coal country culture wars | Pulling the trigger on Don | Asia’s appetite | Alpha’s rotten apple.  “On April 5, 2010, an explosion ripped through Massey Energy’s Upper Big Branch Mine, killing twenty-nine coal miners. This tragedy was the deadliest mine disaster in the United States in forty years--a disaster that never should have happened. These deaths were rooted in the cynical corporate culture of Massey and its notorious former CEO Don Blankenship, and were part of a cycle of poverty, exploitation, and environmental abuse that has dominated Appalachia since coal was first discovered there. And the cycle continues unabated as coal companies bury the most insidious dangers deep underground and hide the true costs. But the disaster goes beyond West Virginia. It casts a global shadow, calling into bitter question why coal miners in the United States are sacrificed to erect cities on the other side of the world, and how the world’s voracious appetite for energy is satisfied at such horrendous cost.”

Galuszka, Peter.  1997.  “Strip-Mining on Steroids” [costs; dangers].  Business Week 17 November, 70.

Garay, Ronald.  2011.  U.S. Steel and Gary, West Virginia: Corporate Paternalism in Appalachia [Gary Hollow coal camps, McDowell Co.].  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.  265 pp.  Contents: Origins and settlement -- Iron and steelmaking science and manufacturing -- Pocahontas Coalfield and the N&W -- Gary at the beginning -- Labor issues and labor organization -- Coal power and town life -- Steel industry in decline -- An era begins to close -- The signs are all around -- Tough but hopeful times -- U.S. Steel, Marathon Oil, and depression -- A bleak year -- U.S. Steel and asset redeployment -- The new U.S. Steel -- Muted optimism -- Disengagement -- Prosperity and uncertainty.  See also: Gary Hollow: A History of the Largest Coal Mining Operation in the World (2005), by Alex P. Schust.

Gartner, Paul.  2006.  “‘One Day More’: Activist Songwriter Elaine Purkey” [UMW organizer, teacher, public speaker].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 32, no. 2 (Summer): 14-19.

Gates, Frederick B.  2007.  “The Impact of the Western & Atlantic Railroad on the Development of the Georgia Upcountry, 1840-1860” [market-oriented capitalism].  Georgia Historical Quarterly 91, no. 2 (Summer): 169-184.

Geiger, Kim, Doug Smith, and Tom Hamburger.  2011.  “Miners’ Survivors Feel Let Down: A Year After a Blast Killed 29, a Safety Bill Has Failed and Efforts to Boost Enforcement Are Mired In Appeals” [Upper Big Branch mine, W.Va.].  Los Angeles Times, 8 May, 18(A).  1190 words, including sidebar links to a spreadsheet, “Mining Money Flooded Congress before Safety Vote” showing up and down votes of House members, and a graphic showing the jump in mining industry political contributions.  http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-coal-mine-safety-20110508,0,3265401.story?page=1.

Gennett, Andrew.  2002.  Sound Wormy: Memoir of Andrew Gennett, Lumberman [1874-1942; Ga., N.C., Tenn.].  Edited by Nicole Hayler, with a foreword by John Alger.  Athens: University of Georgia Press.  218 pp.

Genoways, Ted, ed.  2010.  “The Price of Paperless: Inside the Mines that Feed the Tech Revolution” [electronics: iPads, circuit boards, copper wiring, rechargeable batteries, televisions, cell phones].  Special issue, Virginia Quarterly Review 86, no. 4 (Fall): 1-198.  Ten graphic essays from around the globe on the human and environmental devastation caused by mining (cf. U.S. coal mining): The price of the paperless revolution / Ted Genoways -- Mother of God, child of Zeus [Peru; gold mines; mercury poisoning] / Jessica Benko and Bear Guerra -- Here everything is poison [Kosovo lead mines] / J. Malcolm Garcia -- Jharia burning [India; coal] / Allison Joyce -- The pit [Butte, Mont.; copper; poisoned lake] / Nathaniel Miller -- Father Copper [Chile] / Annie Murphy -- The underground giant: life in the hard rock mines of Quebec and Ontario / Louie Palu -- The solution: Bolivia’s lithium dreams / Matthew Power -- Tin Fever [Congo] / Delphine Schrank -- Digging out [Afghanistan; coal, iron ore, gemstones] / Elliott D. Woods.  http://www.vqronline.org/issues/2010/fall/.

George, Michael, and Frank Strack.  2000.  Passage Through Time: A Milepost Guide for the Great Smoky Mountains Railroad [N.C.].  Collegedale, Tenn.: College Press.  176 pp.  Extends from Asheville to Murphy, passing through Waynesville, Dillsboro, Bryson City, and Andrews.

Giardina, Denise.  2010.  “Mourning in the Mountains” [W.Va.].  New York Times, 7 April, 27(A).  560 words.  Op-ed reaction to coal mine explosion that killed 29 at Massey Energy’s Upper Big Branch mine, April 5, in Raleigh County.

Gilbert, Joan.  1998.  Life on the Lehigh Canal: An Interview with Richard Arner [1820-1942 history; 46-mile conduit for anthracite coal].  Pennsylvania Heritage 24 (Spring): 12-19.

Gildart, Keith.  2009.  “Mining Memories: Reading Coalfield Autobiographies” [18 Welsh miners, 1980s Wales, UK].  Labor History 50, no. 2 (May): 139-161.

Gillespie, Kim.  1995.  “‘Storming Heaven’ in the Decade of Greed.”  In Appalachia and the Politics of Culture, ed. E. C. Fine.  Journal of the Appalachian Studies Association 7: 101-110.  Johnson City: East Tennessee State University, Center for Appalachian Studies and Services.

Gillespie, Michael.  2001.  Come Hell or High Water: A Lively History of Steamboating on the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers.  Stoddard, Wis.: Heritage Press.  295 pp.

Gilley, Jennifer, and Stephen Burnett.  1998.  “Deconstructing and Reconstructing Pittsburgh’s Man of Steel: Reading Joe Magarac against the Context of the 20th-Century Steel Industry” [media hero; folk hero].  Journal of American Folklore 111 (Fall): 392-408.

Gisolfi, Monica R.  2009.  “Leaving the Farm to Save the Farm: The Poultry Industry and the Problem of ‘Public Work,’ 1950-1970” [Upcountry Ga.].  Chap. 3 in Migration and the Transformation of the Southern Workplace Since 1945, ed. R. Cassanello and C. Davis, 64-79.  Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

Glass, Brent D.  1997.  “Massacre at Lattimer: An American Rite of Passage: An Interview with Michael Novak” [immigrant miners; Hazelton, Pa.; 1897].  Pennsylvania Heritage 23 (Fall): 4-13.

Glass, Ira, prod.  2011.  “440: Game Changer” [fracking].  Narr. Ira Glass.  This American Life from WBEZ [radio program].  Originally aired July 8, 2011.  60 min.  Marcellus Shale gas drilling in Pennsylvania.  “Host Ira Glass tells the stories of two professors, each making a calculation that no one had made before. One gets acclaim. One ends up out of a job.”  Act One: You’ve Got Shale.  “...how Pennsylvania’s universities, politicans and industry have united to develop natural gas.”  Act Two: Ground War. “Sarah takes us to Mt. Pleasant, PA, where a gas exploration company called Range Resources has leased 95% of the township’s land.”  http://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/440/game-changer.

Glenn, Anne Fitten.  2012.  Asheville Beer: An Intoxicating History of Mountain Brewing. Charleston, S.C.: History Press.  192 pp.

Godbey, Emily.  2006.  “Disaster Tourism and the Melodrama of Authenticity: Revisiting the 1889 Johnstown Flood” [1889; 2,000 killed].  Pennsylvania History 73, no. 3 (Summer): 273-315.

Goforth, James A.  1998 [1991].  When Steam Ran the Clinchfield [Railroad; numerous photos].  Johnson City, Tenn: Overmountain Press. 105 pp.  Originally published: Erwin, Tenn.: Gem Publishers.

Goldbeck, Christine M.  2001.  “Rivers of Steel” [southwestern Pa.; Rivers of Steel National and State Heritage Area, cultural conservation plans].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 18 (Spring): 30-34.

Goldbeck, Christine.  2003.  “Breaker Boy, Bootlegger, Bookworm, Bard” [anthracite miner Joe Machulsky, b. 1914].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 20, no. 2-3 (Summer/Winter): 18-21.

Goldbeck, Christine.  2003.  “Going Underground” [exploring abandoned anthracite mines in northeastern Pa.].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 20 (Spring): 24-27.

Goode, James B.  1997.  Ancient Sunshine: The Story of Coal [history of mining; adolescent audience].  Ashland, Ky.: Jesse Stuart Foundation.  96 pp.

Goodell, Jeff.  2001.  “How Coal Got It’s Glow Back” [political controversies; 2001 energy demands, prices].  New York Times Magazine, 22 July, 30-39.

Goodell, Jeff.  2002.  Our Story: 77 Hours That Tested Our Friendship and Our Faith [Somerset, Pa.; nine trapped miners rescued].  By the Quecreek Miners, as told to Jeff Goodell.  New York: Hyperion.  176 pp.

Goodell, Jeff.  2006.  “Cooking the Climate with Coal.”  Natural History 115 (May): 36-41.

Goodell, Jeff.  2006.  Big Coal: The Dirty Secret behind America’s Energy Future [“shatters the myth of cheap coal energy”].  Boston: Houghton Mifflin.  324 pp.

Goodell, Jeff.  2008.  “Big Coal’s Campaign of Lies.”  Rolling Stone, 7 August: 65-66.  U.S. Senate rejects Climate Security Act to cut greenhouse-gas emissions.

Goodell, Jeff.  2012.  “The Big Fracking Bubble: The Scam Behind the Gas Boom.”  Rolling Stone, no. 1152: 48-55.  “It’s not only toxic – it’s driven by a right-wing billionaire who profits more from flipping land than drilling for gas.”  http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/news/the-big-fracking-bubble-the-scam-behind-the-gas-boom-20120301?print=true.

Gorn, Elliot J.  2001.  Mother Jones: The Most Dangerous Woman in America [1843?-1930].  New York: Hill and Wang.  408 pp.

Gottlieb, Peter. 1999.  “Shaping a New Labor Movement, 1917-1941.” In Keystone of Democracy: A History of Pennsylvania Workers, ed. H. Harris, P. Blatz, 161-201, 211-212.  Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.

Gratton, Brian, and Jon Moen.  2004.  “Immigration, Culture, and Child Labor in the United States, 1880-1920.”  The Journal of Interdisciplinary History 34, no. 3 (Winter): 355-391.

Gratz, David E., and Terry E. Arbogast.  2003.  The Monongahela Railway [Monongahela River Valley, W.Va. and Pa.; photos, maps, tables].  Washingtonville, Ohio: M2FQ Publications.  212 pp.

Gray, Pamela Lee.  2002.  Ohio Valley Pottery Towns [photo-retrospective: East Liverpool, Ohio -- Wellsville, Ohio -- Beaver Area, Pennsylvania -- Chester, West Virginia -- Newell, West Virginia -- East Palestine, Ohio].  Images of America.  Chicago, Ill.: Arcadia.  128 pp.

Gray, Sam.  1997.  “I-26 and the Will of God: Introduction” [photo-essay; highway corridor; Madison Co., N.C.].  Southern Quarterly 35 (Spring): 116-127.

Gray, Sam.  2001.  “The Roads of Madison County: An Interpretive History” [construction of Interstate 26].  In May We All Remember Well: A Journal of the History & Cultures of Western North Carolina, Vol. 2, ed. R. S. Brunk, 288-313.  Asheville, N.C.: Robert S. Brunk Auction Services, Inc.

Green, Brian.  1997.  “The Consolidated Gold Mine” [Dahlonega, Ga.; 1896-1906].  Foxfire Magazine 31 (Fall/Winter): 149-158.

Green, Chris.  2006.  “Selective Bibliography of Books, Films, and Web Sites about Coal & Central Appalachia.”  In Coal: A Poetry Anthology, ed. C. Green, 311-318 unnumbered.  Ashland, Ky.: Blair Mountain Press.  [1. About coal / 2. Accidents & safety / 3. African-American miners / 4. Black lung / 5. Buffalo Creek / 6. Coal industry / 7. Coal towns / 8. History & Culture / 9. Labor struggles: Harlan County, Kentucky / 10. Labor struggles: UMWA & Mother Jones / 11. Labor struggles: West Virginia / 12. Language / 13. Literature / 14. Song / 15. Stripmining and Mountaintop Removal / 16. Women].

Green, Hardy.  2010.  The Company Town: The Industrial Edens and Satanic Mills That Shaped the American Economy.  New York: Basic Books.  248 pp.  Includes coal-mining towns, steel-mill towns, textile-mill towns, timber-mill towns, oil towns, utopian towns, Oak Ridge, Tenn., and automobile industry.

Green, James R.  1996.  “‘Tying the Knot of Solidarity’: The Pittston Strike of 1989-1990.”  In The United Mine Workers of America: A Model of Industrial Solidarity?, ed. J. Laslett, 513-544.  University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Green, Jerry E.  2004.  “Steubenville, Ohio, and the Nineteenth-Century Steamboat Trade” [1820s-1880s; tables].  Ohio History 113 (Winter-Spring): 18-30.  http://publications.ohiohistory.org/pdf/113WSgreen.pdf.

Green, Jerry.  2010.  “Wheeling and the Development of the Inland Riverboat Trade” [W.Va.]. Ohio Valley History 10, no. 2 (Summer): 46-70.  Nineteenth-century illustrations.  Appendix 1: “Riverboats Built in Wheeling, by Year” [approx. 190]; Appendix 2: “Wheeling Captains and Their Associated Boats” [54 names].

Griswold, Eliza.  2011.  “The Fracturing of Pennsylvania.”  New York Times, 11 November.  5,703 words, plus video clip.  Residents of Amwell Township, southwestern Pa., relate their experiences with an invasive, Marcellus Shale hydrofracking industry [Range Resources].  http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/20/magazine/fracking-amwell-township.html?_r=2&pagewanted=all%3Fsrc%3Dtp&smid=fb-share.

Grom, Robert M.  2008.  Braddock, Allegheny County [Pa.; photo retrospective].  Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia.  127 pp.  Site of British General Edward Braddock’s defeat by French and Indians in 1755, Whiskey Rebellion gatherings, and Andrew Carnegie’s first library and steel mill (predecessor of U.S. Steel Corporation).

Gruenwald, Kim M.  2012.  “‘The invention of the steam-boat was intended for US’: Steamboats and Western Identitiy in the Early Republic.”  Ohio Valley History 12, no. 3 (Fall): 3-20.

Guillerman, Michael D.  2009.  Face Boss: The Memoir of a Western Kentucky Coal Miner. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.  347 pp.  Union County; Peabody Coal Company; details the risks and dangers but also the good times and camaraderie as well as gender, race, and union relationships.

Hahn, Thomas Swiftwater.  1997.  The Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Lock-Houses and Lock-Keepers.  Monograph series.  Morgantown, W.Va.: Institute for the History of Technology & Industrial Archaeology.  105 pp.

Hales, Peter Bacon.  1997.  Atomic Spaces: Living on the Manhattan Project [social history of workers, not scientists or military; including 1940s Oak Ridge, Tenn.].  Champaign: University of Illinois Press.  448 pp.

Hall, Jacquelyn Dowd, et al.  [1987] 2000.  Like a Family: The Making of a Southern Cotton Mill World.  Reprint, with a foreword by Michael Frisch, and a new afterword by the authors.  Fred W. Morrison Series in Southern Studies.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  520 pp.

Hall, Randal L.  2012.  Mountains on the Market: Industry, the Environment, and the South [southwestern Va.; 250 years of industrialization and environmental exploitation].  New Directions in Southern History series.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  288 pp.  Contents: Industrial inroads and pragmatic patriots | Turnpikes to ore and more | Wheels and rails in the new America | Corporate peaks in the valley | Left behind.

Hansen, Evan, et al.  2008.  The Long-Term Economic Benefits of Wind Versus Mountaintop Removal Coal on Coal River Mountain, West Virginia [Raleigh Co.; tables, maps].  Morgantown, W.Va.: Downstream  Strategies.  52 pp.

Hardy, Charles, III.  1999.  “Fish or Foul: A History of the Delaware River Basin through the Perspective of the American Shad, 1682 to the Present” [northeastern Pa.].  Pennsylvania History 66 (Autumn): 506-534.

Hargrove, Erwin C.  1994.  Prisoners of Myth: The Leadership of  the Tennessee Valley Authority, 1933-1990.  Princeton:  Princeton University Press.  374 pp.

Hargrove, Erwin C.  [1994] 2001.  Prisoners of Myth: The Leadership of the Tennessee Valley Authority, 1933-1990.  Reprint, with a new preface.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.  374 pp.  Originally published by Princeton University Press.

Harkinson, Josh.  2011.  “First Big Coal Broke the Union, Then It Broke This Town: A West Virginia Community Gets Wiped Off the Map.” Mother Jones 36, no. 2 (March/April).  Massey Energy; Twilight, W.Va.  http://motherjones.com/environment/2011/03/massey-energy-twilight-west-virginia.

Harris, Howard.  1999.  “Hard Times and New Hopes, 1970-1997" [job loss].  In Keystone of Democracy: A History of Pennsylvania Workers, ed. H. Harris, P. Blatz, 275-325, 334-335.  Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.

Harris, Paul.  2005.  “They Flattened This Mountaintop to Find Coal -- And Created a Wasteland: A Ravaged U.S. State is Fighting Back against Mining Bosses Who Backed Bush” [mountaintop removal].  The Observer (London), 16 January, 25.  1055 words.  http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,1391483,00.html.

Harris, Wess, comp., ed.  2012.  Dead Ringers: Why Miners March: Buried Truth from the Mountains [W.Va.].  Gay, W.Va.: Appalachian Community Services.  168 pp.  Contents: Esau in the coal fields [forced sexual servitude] / Michael Kline -- Goldenseal buried truth -- Behind the coal curtain / Michael Kline -- West Virginia’s gilded history / Tom Rhule -- Handwritten memories / James Kilgore -- Battle of Blair Mountain pamphlet / Logan District Mines Information Bureau -- Victory on Blair Mountain! / Wess Harris -- Baseball and treason / Bill Kovarik -- John L. Lewis: 40 years of upset stomachs / William C. Blizzard -- Images: past and present -- An open letter: Roberts to Reid-Smith -- Cecil Roberts shares his story: an interview / Michael Kline -- Hidden coffins unearth needed history / Fr. John S. Rausch -- When Miners March [2010]: a review / Theresa Burriss.

Harris, Wess.  2011.  “What If We Really Won the Battle of Blair Mountain?”  Appalachian Heritage 39, no. 3 (Summer): 87-91, with nine photos of hero Bill Blizzard (and Peter and Mike Seeger) throughout this issue.  Argues that 10,000 union miners actually won the 1921 Battle of Blair Mountain (Logan Co., W.Va.) against coal operators and federal troops in “the largest armed insurrection since the Civil War.”

Harshbarger, Dwight.  2009.  Witness at Hawk’s Nest: A Novel [1930; silicosis industrial disaster; W.Va.].  Huntington, W.Va.: Mid-Atlantic Highlands.  260 pp.

Harvey, Willard A., Jr.  1997.  Railroads of the Ohio Valley, 1947-1960. Book Two: Huntington, West Virginia to Cincinnati, Ohio [captioned photographs].  Telford, Pa.: Silver Brook Junction Publishing Company.  95 pp.

Haskew, Barbara S., and Robert B. Jones.  2004.  “Labor Strife in the Southern Stove Industry: Shootout at South Pittsburg” [1927; Marion Co.].  Tennessee Historical Quarterly 63 (Winter): 266-283.

Hasler, Richard.  2005.  “The Tragedy of Privatization: Moving Mountains in Appalachia, a Southern African Critique” [property rights; morality].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 11, no. 1-2 (Spring-Fall): 95-103.

Hawkins, Jay W.  2009.  Glasshouses & Glass Manufacturers of the Pittsburgh Region, 1795-1910.  New York: iUniverse.  584 pp.  “By the close of the 19th century, the Pittsburgh region was producing more than half of all domestic w  indow glass...in the United States.”

Healey, Richard G.  2007.  The Pennsylvania Anthracite Coal Industry, 1860-1902: Economic Cycles, Business Decision-Making and Regional Dynamics.  Scranton, Pa.: University of Scranton Press.  512 pp.

Heinberg, Richard.  2009.  Blackout: Coal, Climate and the Last Energy Crisis.  Gabriola Island, B.C., Canada: New Society Publishers.  201 pp.

Hennen, John C., Jr.  1999.  “Putting the ‘You’ in Union” [Danie Joe Stewart, organizer; Highlands Regional Medical Center, Prestonsburg, Ky.; 1975].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 5 (Fall): 227-240.

Hennen, John C., and Ronald L. Lewis, section editors.  2006.  “Labor” [signed entries].  In Encyclopedia of Appalachia, ed. R. Abramson and J. Haskell, 551-609 (with introductory essay, 551-557).  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Hensley, Julia, Stephen Hensley, and Jim Kevin. 1998.  “A Forgotten Pioneer” [Edward Chalmers Huffaker of Chuckey City, Tenn.: aviation pioneer, engineer, surveyor, inventor].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 15 (Winter): 6-12.

Herod, Andrew.  1997.  “Reinterpreting Organized Labor’s Experience in the Southeast: 1947 to Present.”  Southeastern Geographer 37 (November): 214-237.

Hevener, John W.  [1978] 2002.  Which Side Are You On?: The Harlan County Coal Miners, 1931-39 [Weatherford Award winner].  Reprint, with a foreword by Robert Gipe.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press.  216 pp.

Hicks, Enoch E.  2006.  Appalachian Legacy [b. 1931; coal mining biography; War, W.Va.].  Parsons, W.Va.: McClain Printing Co.  246 pp.

High, Mike.  1997.  The C&O Canal Companion [guidebook; 185-mile C&O Canal National Historical Park].  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.  269 pp.

High, Steven C., and David W. Lewis.  2007.  Corporate Wasteland: The Landscape and Memory of Deindustrialization.  Ithaca, N.Y.: IRL Press.  193 pp.  Chap. 3, “From Cradle to Grave: The Politics of Memory in Youngstown, Ohio,” 64-86;  Chap. 7, “King Coal: The Coal Counties of West Virginia” [brief overview], 144-148.

Hildebrand, John R.  2001.  Iron Horses in the Valley: The Valley and Shenandoah Valley Railroads, 1866-1882.  Shippensburg, Pa.: Burd Street Press. 128 pp.

Hill, Jack.  2011.  The Cambria and Indiana Railroad: 90 Years, 1904-1994.  [No location]: CreateSpace.  111 pp.  West-central Pennsylvania; coal industry.

Hindman, Hugh D.  2002.  Child Labor: An American History [includes chapters on coal mines, textile mills, and glass manufacturing].  Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe.  431 pp.

Hines, Elizabeth, and Michael S. Smith.  2002.  “Gold Is Where You Find It: Placer Mining in North Carolina, 1799-1849.”  Earth Sciences History 21 (no.2): 119-149.

Hinshaw, John.  2002.  Steel and Steelworkers: Race and Class Struggle in Twentieth Century Pittsburgh.  Albany: State University of New York Press.  348 pp.

Holbrook, Chris.  2007.  “From Harry Caudill to Erik Reece: A Review of Lost Mountain.”  Appalachian Journal 34, no. 2 (Winter): 228-234.  Review essay of Lost Mountain: A Year in the Vanishing Wilderness: Radical Strip Mining and the Devastation of Appalachia, by Erik Reece (Riverhead Books, 2006).

Holleran, Philip M.  1996.  “Explaining the Decline of Child Labor in Pennsylvania Silk Mills, 1899-1919.”  Pennsylvania History 63 (Winter): 78-95.

Holleran, Philip M.  1997.  “Family Income and Child Labor in Carolina Cotton Mills.”  Social Science History 21 (Fall): 299-320.

Hoover, Robert B.  1998.  “Bridging the Past & Present: Reflections on the Western Maryland Railway” [connecting Casselman, Youghiogheny, and Upper Potomac River Valleys].  Pittsburgh History 81 (Spring): 26-38.

House, Silas, and Jason Howard.  2009.  Something’s Rising: Appalachians Fighting Mountaintop Removal.  Foreword by Lee Smith.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  306 pp.  Profiles, with oral histories, from twelve activists: Jean Ritchie, Denise Giardina, Bev May (nurse), Carl Shoupe (miner), Kathy Mattea, Judy Bonds (local activist), Pat Hudson (grassroots organizer), Jack Spadaro, Nathan Hall, Ann Shelby and Jessie Lynne Keltner, and Larry Bush.

Howard, Walter T.  2001.  “The National Miners Union: Communists and Miners in the Pennsylvania Anthracite, 1928-1931.”  Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 125 (January-April): 91-124.

Howard, Walter T.  2002.  “‘Radicals Not Wanted’: Communists and the 1929 Wilkes-Barre Silk Mill Strikes.”  Pennsylvania History 69 (Summer): 342-366.

Howard, Walter T.  2005.  Forgotten Radicals: Communists in the Pennsylvania Anthracite, 1919-1950.  Lanham, Md.: University Press of America.  268 pp.

Howard, Walter T., ed.  2004.  Anthracite Reds.  2 vols.  New York: iUniverse.  Vol. 1: A Documentary History of Communists in Northeastern Pennsylvania during the 1920s.  Vol. 2: A Documentary History of Communists in Northeastern Pennsylvania during the Great Depression.

Hubacher, Max.  2003.  “Reminiscences of Nitro – 1925 to 1934” [W.Va.].  Compiled by William D. Wintz.  In Great Kanawha Valley Chemical Heritage, Symposium Proceedings, May 3, 2003, Institute, West Virginia, comp. Lee R. Maddex, 37-47.  Morgantown, W.Va.: Institute for the History of Technology and Industrial Archaeology.

Huber, Patrick.  2006.  “Red Necks and Red Bandanas: Appalachian Coal Miners and the Coloring of Union Identity, 1912-1936.”  Western Folklore 65, no. 1: 195-210.

Huddleston, Eugene, John Joseph, and Everett Young.  1997.  Chesapeake & Ohio, Coal, and Color [railroad photodocumentary: W.Va., Ky., Oh.].  Clifton Forge, Va.: Chesapeake & Ohio Historical Society.  120 pp.

Huddleston, Eugene L.  2002.  Appalachian Conquest: C&O, N&W, Virginian and Clinchfield Cross the Mountains [photo-documentary; steam locomotives].  Lynchburg, Va.: TLC Publishing.  138 pp.

Hulsemann, Karsten.  2001.  “Greenfields in the Heart of Dixie: How the American Auto Industry Discovered the South.”  In The Second Wave: Southern Industrialization from the 1940s to the 1970s, ed. P. Scranton, 219-254.  Athens: University of Georgia Press.

Hydro, Vincent, Jr.  2000.  “The Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company’s Mauch Chunk Railroad, Part III: Panther Creek Operations & The Switchback Railroad” [Pa.].  In Canal History and Technology Proceedings 19: 7-68.  Easton, Pa.: Canal History and Technology Press.

Ingalls, Gerald L., and Tyrel G. Moore.  2001. “Old, But New: An Inventory of Textile Mill Reuse in the Charlotte Urban Region” [N.C.; 118 mills built between 1880 and 1930].  Southeastern Geographer 41 (May): 74-88.

Inhofe, James M., and Benjamin L. Cardin.  2010.  “Mountaintop Removal Mining: The Coal Industry vs. the Environment - Should Congress and the Obama Administration Take Steps to Ban Mountaintop Mining?”  Congressional Digest 89, no. 5: 129-160.

Irons, Janet.  2000.  Testing the New Deal: The General Textile Strike of 1934 in the American South.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press.  262 pp.

Jacquet, Jeffrey, and Richard C. Stedman.  2011.  “Natural Gas Landowner Coalitions in New York State: Emerging Benefits of Collective Natural Resource Management [Marcellus Shale].  Journal of Rural Social Sciences 26, no. 1: 62-91.  Rural landowners in N.Y. organize to collectively bargain with natural gas companies.  http://www.ag.auburn.edu/auxiliary/srsa/pages/TOCs/JRSS%20vol26-1.htm.

Janosov, Robert A.  1997.  “Concrete City: Garden Village of the Anthracite Region” [company housing; 1914; Luzerne Co., Pa.] .  Pennsylvania Heritage 23 (Summer): 32-39.

Jenkins, Chris L.  2005.  “Next Generation Moves Into the Black: As Older Va. Coal Miners Retire, Young Workers Drawn to Industry’s New Boom” [dateline: Nora, Va.; coal price doubles to nearly $60 a ton].  Washington Post, 15 August, 1(B).

Johannsen, Kristin, Bobbie Ann Mason, and Mary Ann Taylor-Hall, ed.  2005.  Missing Mountains: We Went to the Mountaintop but It Wasn’t There [mountaintop removal mining resistance: “essays, poems, stories, and personal testimonials by Kentuckians”].  Introduction by Silas House; afterword by Wendell Berry.  Nicholasville, Ky.: Wind.  209 pp.

Johnson, Leland, and Daniel Shaffer.  1994.  Oak Ridge National  Laboratory: The First Fifty Years.  Knoxville: University of  Tennessee Press.  270 pp.

Johnson, Leland R., and Charles E. Parrish.  1999.  Engineering the Kentucky River: The Commonwealth’s Waterway [1836-1917; history, commerce, 14 locks and dams].  Foreword by Thomas D. Clark.  Louisville, Ky.: Louisville Engineer District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.  232 pp.

Johnson, Mary.  1995.  “A Nineteenth-Century Mill Village: Virginius Island, 1800-60.”  [Harpers Ferry, W.Va.].  West Virginia History 54 (1995): 1-27.

Jones, Barbara L.  2006.  Born of Fire: The Valley of Work: Industrial Scenes of Southwestern Pennsylvania [Pittsburgh industry-inspired artwork, early 20th-century; Westmoreland Museum of American Art exhibition].  Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press.  160 pp.

Jones, Bill, and Ronald L. Lewis.  2007.  “Gender and Transnationality among Welsh Tinplate Workers in Pittsburgh: The Hattie Williams Affair, 1895.”  Labor History 48, no. 2 (May): 175-194.

Jones, James Alexander (1853-1941).  2005.  Kelly’s Creek Chronicles, Kanawha County, West Virginia: The Illustrated Diary of James Alexander Jones, Coal Miner Kept during the Period, 1870 to 1939.  Edited by William Roosevelt Hudnall.  New Canton, Va.: Kelly’s Creek Publishers.  222 pp.

Jones, June.  2006.  “Whitcomb Boulder” [landmark, monstrous boulder that fell on railroad tracks from New River cliffs at Hawks Nest State Park].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 32, no. 4 (Winter): 18-19.

Jordan, Sam.  2003.  “Laying Track in Nicholas County” [1940s C&O railroad crew, racially mixed.  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 29 (Winter): 26-35.

Juravich, Tom, and Kate Bronfenbrenner.  1999.  Ravenswood: The Steelworkers’ Victory and the Revival of American Labor [W.Va. aluminum plant; 1990 labor lockout].  Ithaca, N.Y.: ILR Press.  245 pp.

Justice, Jack.  2002.  “A Coal Miner” [labor injustices endured by the author’s father in 1940s Ky.].  Appalachian Heritage 30 (Summer): 9-14.

Kapsch, Robert J.  2007.  The Potomac Canal: George Washington and the Waterway West [1755-1828; color reproductions of 19th-century illustrations and maps; Potomac River navigation; Shenandoah River navigation, 1790-1890].  Morgantown: West Virginia University Press.  373 pp.

Karan, Pradyumna P., ed.  2001.  Japan in the Bluegrass [automobile manufacturing plants in Ky.].  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  341 pp.

Karig, Martin Robert.  2007.  Coal Cars: The First Three Hundred Years [train freight car history, photos, specifications].  Scranton: University of Scranton Press.  420 pp.

Kaufman, Bruce E.  1997.  “The Emergence and Growth of a Nonunion Sector in the Southern Paper Industry.”  In Southern Labor in Transition, 1940-1995, ed. R. Zieger, 295-329.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Keeney, Charles Belmont.  2006.  “A Republican for Labor: T. C. Townsend and the West Virginia Labor Movement, 1921-1932” [1877-1940; defense counsel for Logan Co. chapter of the UMWA after the 1921 Battle of Blair Mountain; Republican candidate for governor in 1932].  West Virginia History 60 (2004-2006): 1-22.

Keller, Kenneth W.  2010.  “The Best Thoroughfare in the South.”  Chap. 6 in The Great Valley Road of Virginia: Shenandoah Landscapes from Prehistory to the Present, ed. W. Hofstra and K. Raitz, 153-189.  Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.

Keller, Vagel C., and Jaron Hawkins.  2008.  Underground Coal Mining in Western Maryland, 1876-1977: A Reference Guide [Allegany and Garrett Cos.].  Frostburg, Md.: Lewis J. Ort Library, Frostburg State University.  462 pp.  Contents: The coal seams of Western Maryland -- History & technology of Maryland’s underground coal mines -- Coal mines in the era before regulation (1820-1875) -- Jennings Run -- Braddock (Preston) Run -- Frostburg area -- The Upper Georges Creek Valley -- The Lower Georges Creek Valley -- The Upper Potomac Basin -- The Upper Youghiogheny Basin -- The Lower Youghiogheny Basin -- The Casselman (Castleman) Basin.  See also: supplementary volume, Coal Company Index, comp. by Sarah McIntire, 98 pp.

Kemp, Emory.  2000.  The Great Kanawha Navigation [Kanawha River, W.Va.; 19th-century lock and dam project].  Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.  300 pp.

Kennedy, Michael V.  1998.  “Working Agreements: The Use of Subcontracting in the Pennsylvania Iron Industry, 1725-1789.”  Pennsylvania History 65 (Autumn): 492-508.

Kenny, Kevin.  1998.  Making Sense of the Molly Maguires [Irish; Pa.’s anthracite region].  New York: Oxford University Press.  368 pp.

Kentucky Coal Miners: A People Not Forgotten [six student interviews; Harlan Co., Ky.].  2009.  Special issue, Foxfire Magazine 43, no. 1-2 (Spring/Summer): 1-80.

Kerns, Megan Jewell.  2007.  “The Geography of Sorrow: Mountaintop Removal in Appalachia.”  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 23, no. 1 (Spring/Summer): 6-8.

Ketchersid, William L.  2008.  “Major Campbell Wallace: Southern Railroad Leader.”  Tennessee Historical Quarterly 67,  no. 2 (Summer): 90-105.  Knoxville; 1850s-60s; East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad; Western and Atlantic Railroad.

Kitch, Carolyn L.  2012.  Pennsylvania in Public Memory: Reclaiming the Industrial Past. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.  260 pp.  Contents: Introduction: Public Memory and the Legacies of Labor | “Almost a Nation”: The History of Industrial Heritage in Pennsylvania | “A Journey That Will Inspire”: Regions, Routes, and Rails |  “Overcomin’ What Nature Put in Your Way”: Rural Heritage and Pioneer Mythology | “Where I Came From, How I Got Here”: Ethnic Diversity, Cultural Tourism, and the Memory of Immigration | “Deep Veins of Loss”: Sacrifice and Heroism in Coal Country | “From Our Family to Yours”: Personal Meanings of Work in Factory Tourism | “Steel Made This Town”: An Unfinished Story in Uncertain Times | “What’s the Use of Wond’rin’?”: The Questions of Industrial Heritage | Epilogue: The Future of Pennsylvania’s Past.

Kline, Carrie Nobel.  1998.  “Ohio River Voices: Echoes of the Army Corps” [interview; towboat navigation].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 24 (Spring): 28-35.

Knapp, Richard F., and Brent D. Glass.  1999.  Gold Mining in North Carolina.  Raleigh: North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources, Division of Archives and History.  192 pp.

Knies, Michael.  2001.  “The D&H Coal Company: New Insights from the James Archbald Papers” [1840s Pa. anthracite region; Delaware & Hudson Canal Co.; and Pennsylvania Coal Company projects].  Canal History and Technology Proceedings 20: 53-80.

Knipe, Edward E., and Helen M. Lewis.  [1971] 2005.  “The Impact of Coal Mining on the Traditional Mountain Subculture” [Southwest Va.].  In Culture, Ethnicity, and Justice in the South: The Southern Anthropological Society, 1968-1971, 329-341.  Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.  (Reprint, from Proceedings No. 4. The Not So Solid South: Anthropological Studies in a Regional Subculture, ed. J. Morland, 25-37).

Knowles, A. K.  2006.  “The White Hands ‘Damn Them … Won’t Stick’: Labor Scarcity and Spatial Discipline in the Antebellum Iron Industry.”  Journal of Historical Geography 32, no. 1 (January): 57-73.

Kohn, David.  2002.  “The 300-Million-Gallon Warning” [Martin Co., Ky. coal slurry flood, Oct. 2000].  Mother Jones 27 (March/April): 22.

Kohn, Rita T., ed.  2011.  Full Steam Ahead: Reflections on the Impact of the First Steamboat on the Ohio River, 1811-2011 [eleven essays].  Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society Press.  240 pp.  Contents: Harbinger of revolution / Leland R. Johnson -- Structural evolution of the western rivers steamboat / Captain Alan L. Bates -- A synoptic history of towboating and its origins / Jack E. Custer -- The era of town building below the falls: whatever will benefit a part will benefit the whole / Rick Bell -- Omen of evil: steamboats and the colonization of the Ohio River Valley / Thomas C. Buchanan -- The steamboat and black urban life in the Ohio Valley / Joe William Trotter Jr. -- Steamboat music / Sandra M. Custere -- The steamboat New Orleans and its impact on navigation on Ohio River tributaries / Gerald W. Sutphin -- The Ohio River: a world-class inland waterway / Robert Willis -- Afterword: The river today and tomorrow / Kenneth A. Wheeler -- Appendix 1: Belle of Louisville: sole survivor of the pioneering New Orleans / Linda Harris and Kadie Engstrom -- Appendix 2: The Rivers Institute at Hanover College: A list of materials on river people, steamboats, and the Ohio Mississippi River system in the Agnes Brown Duggan Library / Douglas Denne and Katherine McCardwell.

Kosola, William.  2000.  “The B&O Railroad and C&O Canal’s ‘Race up the Potomac’”  [from 1828; to Cumberland, Md.].  Pennsylvania Geographer 37 (Spring/Summer): 100-117.

Krause, Paul.  1992.  The Battle for Homestead, 1880-1892: Politics, Culture, and Steel [Pa.]. Pittsburgh Series in Social and Labor History.  Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.  548 pp.  History of Homestead Steel Works; Homestead Strike, 1892.

Lane, Ron, and Ted Schnepf.  1999.  West Virginia Narrow Gauge: Mann’s Creek Railway [New River Gorge; coal and timber].  Lynchburg, Va.: TLC Publishing. 200 pp.

Larson, Andrew H.  [1916] 2003.  “Report on the Meadow River Lumber Company of Rainelle, W.Va., by Andrew H. Larson, May 2, 1916 [tables, drawings, inventory; Fayette and Greenbrier Cos.].  West Virginia History 59 (2001-2003): 44-84.

Laslett, John H. M.  1996.  “British Immigrant Colliers, and the Origins and Early Development of the UMWA, 1870-1912.”  In The United Mine Workers of America: A Model of Industrial Solidarity?, ed. J. Laslett, 29-50.  University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Laslett, John H. M.  1996.  “Introduction: ‘A Model of Industrial Solidarity’: Interpreting the UMWA’s First Hundred Years, 1890-1990.”  In The United Mine Workers of America: A Model of Industrial Solidarity?, ed. J. Laslett, 1-28.  University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Laslett, John H. M., ed.  1996.  The United Mine Workers of America: A Model of Industrial Solidarity?  University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press in association with the Pennsylvania State University Libraries.  576 pp.

Lattimer Massacre of 1897, The [seven papers].  2002.  Special issue, Pennsylvania History 69 (Winter): 1-78.

Leloudis, James, and Kathryn Walbert, creators.  2000.  Like a Family: The Making of a Southern Cotton Mill World.  http://www.ibiblio.org/sohp.  Website; oral narratives, images, based on the book of the same name by Jacquelyn Dowd Hall (1987, 2000).

Leonard, Joseph W.  [2005] 2010.  Anthracite Roots: Generations of Coal Mining in Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania.  Charleston, S.C.: History Press.  95 pp.

Letwin, Daniel.  1995.  “Interracial Unionism, Gender, and ‘Social Equality’ in the Alabama Coalfields, 1878-1908.”  The Journal of Southern History 61 (August): 519-554.

Letwin, Daniel.  2002.  “Labor Relations in the Industrializing South.”  In A Companion to the American South, ed. J. Boles, 424-443.  Blackwell Companions to American History, no. 3.  Malden, Mass.: Blackwell.

Lewis, Lloyd D.  2011.  West Virginia Railroads, Vol. 4: Virginian Railway [pictorial].  Forest, Va.: TLC Publishing.  128 pp.  “...intended for the almost exclusive haulage of coal from West Virginia mines to Norfolk, Virginia.”

Lewis, Ronald L.  1995.  “Railroads, Deforestation, and the Transformation of Agriculture in the West Virginia Back Counties, 1880-1920.”  In Appalachia in the Making: The Mountain South in the Nineteenth Century, ed. M. Pudup, D. Billings, and A. Waller, 297-320.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Lewis, Ronald L.  1998.  Transforming the Appalachian Countryside: Railroads, Deforestation, and Social Change in West Virginia, 1880-1920  [consequences of industrial exploitation].  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  348 pp.

Lewis, Ronald L.  2004.  “Industrialization” [history].  In High Mountains Rising: Appalachia in Time and Place, ed. R. Straw and H. Blethen, 59-73.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Lewis, Ronald L.  2009.  “Publications” [bibliography of Lewis’s published books and papers to date].  In Culture, Class, and Politics in Modern Appalachia: Essays in Honor of Ronald L. Lewis, ed. J. Egolf, K. Fones-Wolf, and L. Martin, 329-334.  Morgantown: West Virginia University Press.

Lewis, Ronald L., ed.  2007.  “Letter from John A. Williams of Algoma Mine to Mr. and Mrs. William Thomas of Brynawel, Aberdare, Wales, 1895” [detailing the life of an immigrant Welsh coal miner in McDowell Co.].  West Virginia History: A Journal of Regional Studies, new series, vol. 1, no. 2 (Fall): 69-89.

Lewis, W. David.  1994.  Sloss Furnaces and the Rise of the Birmingham District: An Industrial Epic.  History of American Science and Technology Series.  Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.  645 pp.

Lieber, James B.  1995.  Friendly Takeover: How an Employee Buyout Saved a Steel Town.  New York: Viking.  382 pp.

Lilly, John.  2004.  “Forever Trains: Railroad Photographer Jay Potter” [b&w photos].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 30 (Fall): 16-23.

Lilly, John.  2009.  “Echoes of Buffalo Creek: An Introduction” [deadly 1972 flood; Logan Co.].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 35, no. 4 (Winter): 9-13.  This is the first of three articles comprising a Special Report, pp. 9-25.

Lilly, John.  2011.  “The Fighter: Larry Gibson of Kayford Mountain” [Kanawha Co.].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 37, no. 4 (Winter): 30-35.  Environmental activist fighting to save his home opposes mountaintop removal mining affecting 187,000 acres around his homeplace.

Lilly, John.  2011.  “Where the Coal People Meet: 2011 Bluefield Coal Show.”  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 37, no. 4 (Winter): 24-29.  Biennial gathering of industry exhibitors and friends of coal.

Lindberg, T. Ty, Emily S. Bernhardt, Raven Bier, A. M. Helton, R. Brittany Merola, Avner Vengosh, and Richard T. Di Giulio.  2011.  “Cumulative Impacts of Mountaintop Mining on an Appalachian Watershed” [Upper Mud River, W.Va.; technical study].  PNAS 108, no. 52 (27 December): 20929-20934.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Linkon, Sherry Lee, and John Russo.  2012.  “Border Crossings: Interdisciplinarity in New Working-Class Studies” [Ohio].  Labor History 53, no. 3 (August): 373-387.  Youngstown (Mahoning Co.); Vacant Properties Map.

Linkon, Sherry Lee, and John Russo.  2002.  Steeltown U.S.A.: Work and Memory in Youngstown [Ohio; deindustrialization].  Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.  288 pp.

Lockard, Duane.  1998.  Coal: A Memoir and Critique.  Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.  225 pp.

Lockard, Duane.  2005.  “A Miner’s Life: Clyde Lockard’s Diary” [1943-65; Marion Co.; b. 1889]. Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 31, no. 2 (Summer): 38-45.

Loeb, Penny.  1997.  “Shear Madness” [W.Va.; mountaintop removal strip mining].  U.S. News & World Report, 11 August, 26-29, 32-36.  See more information including photo and audio essays, and directory information online: http:// usnews.com/usnews/news/coalhigh.htm.

Loeb, Penny.  2004.  “Deluge Without End” [W.Va. floods: “Four years of unprecedented rainfall”... “regulators struggle to reform the logging and mining industries that bear much of the responsibility”].  Southern Exposure 32: 50-67.

Loeb, Penny.  2007.  Moving Mountains: How One Woman and Her Community Won Justice from Big Coal [Patricia Bragg; Pie, W.Va.].  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  306 pp.

Lopez, Steven Henry.  2004.  Reorganizing the Rust Belt: An Inside Study of the American Labor Movement [post-industrial Pittsburgh region; case studies].  Berkeley: University of California Press.  292 pp.

Love, Steve, and David Giffels.  1999.  Wheels of Fortune: The Story of Rubber in Akron [tire companies; outmigrant blacks and white Appalachians].  Foreword by Rita Dove.  Ohio History and Culture series.  Akron, Ohio: University of Akron Press.  359 pp.

Lovelace, Jeff.  1994.  Mount Mitchell: Its Railroad and Toll Road.  Johnson City, Tenn.: Overmountain Press.  86 pp.

Loveland, George.  2005.  Under the Workers’ Caps: From Champion Mill to Blue Ridge Paper [Western N.C. paper mill; employee ownership].  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.  201 pp.

Lowitt, Richard.  2006.  “Tennessee Valley Authority.”  In The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture, Vol. 8: Environment, ed. M. Melosi, 154-159.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  See also, “Tellico Dam,” 273-274, by Gordon E. Harvey.

Lucier, Paul.  2008.  Scientists & Swindlers: Consulting on Coal and Oil in America, 1820-1890.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.  426 pp.  Chapters 7-9 cover the Pa. oil boom (Venango Co., Drake’s oil well, Oil Creek, Petrolia, Pithole), with lesser mention of the concurrent W.Va. oil boom and Appalachian coal fields.

Lumber Mill Life [Nicholas Co.; 1930s-50s]. Special report, Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 23 (Winter): 10-27.

Lundy-Jones, Meghan.  2010.  “Not So High Any More: Middle School Lessons About Mountaintop Removal.”  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 26, no. 1 (Summer): 47-49.  From Black Mountains, N.C., to Kayford Mountain, W.Va.

Lustgarten, Abrahm.  2012.  “New Study Predicts Frack Fluids Can Migrate to Aquifers Within Years.”  Fracking: Gas Drilling’s Environmental Threat series.  ProPublica, 1 May.  869 words, with sidebar links: “Impact: Focusing Public Attention—and Staying With a Story Relentlessly”; “Drilling Regulatory Staffing in Your State”; Graphics: “What Is Hydraulic Fracturing?”; and Video: “Fracking: The Music Video.”  http://www.propublica.org/article/new-study-predicts-frack-fluids-can-migrate-to-aquifers-within-years.

Lyday, Margaret M.  2002.  “An Interdisciplinary Approach: Michael Novak’s The Guns of Lattimer” [Basic Books (1978); 1897 killings].  Pennsylvania History 69 (Winter): 71-78.

MacDonald, Samuel A.  2005.  The Agony of an American Wilderness: Loggers, Environmentalists, and the Struggle for Control of a Forgotten Forest [Allegheny National Forest, Pa.].  Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.  187 pp.

Macoughtry, William O.  2006.  “‘I Like to Tell This History’: William O. Macoughtry, Jr., Recalls the Treason Trials” [author, 96, recalls 1922 trials in Charles Town, W.Va., of UMW leaders after the Battle of Blair Mountain].  Interview by Daniel J. Friend.  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 32, no. 2 (Summer): 27-31.

Madarasz, Anne.  1998.  Glass: Shattering Notions [“A Companion to the Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania Exhibition ‘Glass, Shattering Notions’, the Senator John Heinz Pittsburgh Regional History Center, Opening April 1998”].  Pittsburgh, Pa.: The Society.  163 pp.  “Before Pittsburgh was the Steel City, it was the Glass City. By 1902, the region had more than 100 glass factories. By 1920, the larger Ohio Valley was producing 80 percent of the national output.”

Madarasz, Anne.  2000.  “Pittsburgh Wool” [demise of Pittsburgh Wool Co., the nation’s last pullery with intact machinery].  Western Pennsylvania History 83 (Summer): 64-65.

Maddex, Lee R.  1992.  “Nuttallburg Mine Complex: A Case Study in Mining Technology” [W.Va.].  In New River Symposium Proceedings, April 9-11, 1992, Beckley, West Virginia, 20-29.  Glen Jean, W.Va.: National Park Service, New River Gorge National River.

Maddex, Lee R.  1996.  “Furnaces in Blast on the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad: A Study of the Early Virginias Iron Industry.”  Canal History and Technology Proceedings 15: 81-95.  Easton, Pa.: Canal History and Technology Press.

Maddex, Lee R.  1996.  “The Quinnimont Furnace: A New Look at Fayette County’s Iron Furnace” [W.Va.].  In New River Symposium Proceedings, April 7-8, 1995, Daniels, West Virginia, 77-86.  Glen Jean, W.Va.: National Park Service, New River Gorge National River.

Maddex, Lee.  2001.  “A Little Group of Iron Workers: The La Belle Iron Works and the Formation of the Wheeling Steel Corporation” [W.Va.].  Canal History and Technology Proceedings 20: 81-95.  Easton, Pa.: Canal History and Technology Press.

Maher, Kris.  2006.  “As Demand for Coal Rises, Risky Mines Play Bigger Role” [“alarming upswing in coal mining accidents”; “rise in the number of small, undercapitalized mines”].  Wall Street Journal, 6 June, 1(A), 10(A).

Maher, Regis M.  1999.  Patches of History: The 1920s & 1930s: Heyday of Fayette County Coal & Coke in Pennsylvania [personal narratives; company towns].  Dunbar, Pa.: Stefano’s Printing.  212 pp.

Malloy, Daniel, and Lillian Thomas.  2011.  “Miner Interviews Reveal Fear, Chaos” [MSHA transcripts from Upper Big Branch Mine disaster, 29 dead, April 5, 2010, Montcoal, W.Va.].  Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 10 May, 1(A).  1098 words, plus web link to transcripts of interviews.  http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/11130/1145367-455.stm.

Manganiello, Christopher J.  2012.  “Hitching the New South to ‘White Coal’: Water and Power, 1890-1933.”  Journal Of Southern History 78, no. 2 (May): 255-292.  Water-generated power, including TVA; map (1924 transmission network).

Mapping Mortality: A Post-Gazette Series That Examines Air Pollution in Western Pennsylvania.  2010.  Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 12 December-16 December: daily stories with sidebars, interactive maps, multimedia, and Facebook page comments.  http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/03001/1108747-209.stm#ixzz1aOAZlb25.

Marcus, Irwin M.  2002.  “Migration, Milling, Mining: The Johnstown Heritage Discovery Center and the Windber Coal Heritage Center” [museum review].  Pennsylvania History 69 (Winter): 85-93.

Marrs, Aaron W.  2009.  Railroads in the Old South: Pursuing Progress in a Slave Society.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.  268 pp.

Martin, Lou.  2010.  “Factory Workers in the Hills of West Virginia: The Values and Politics of Rural Industrial Workers in Hancock County, 1930–1965.”  Labor: Studies in Working Class History of the Americas 7, no. 3 (Fall): 53-78.

Martin, Louis C.  2007.  “Tin Plate Towns, 1890-1910: Local Labor Movements and Workers’ Responses to the Crisis in the Steelworkers’ Union” [Wheeling, W.Va., and Apollo and New Castle, Pa.].  Pennsylvania History 74, no. 4 (Autumn): 492-528.

Martinek, Jason D.  2011.  “The Amazons of Allegheny: The Fire, the Riot and the Textile Strike of 1845.”  Western Pennsylvania History 94, no. 1 (Spring): 38-48.

Mason, Matthew E.  1998.  “‘The Hands Here Are Disposed to be Turbulent’: Unrest Among the Irish Trackmen of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, 1829-1851” [Washington to Wheeling; labor riots].  Labor History 39 (August): 253-272.

Mattea, Kathy.  2010.  “A Call to My Appalachian Brothers and Sisters.”  Appalachian Heritage 38, no. 3 (Summer): 44-47.  Text of a speech at the “I Love Mountains” rally against mountaintop removal mining at the Kentucky State Capitol, February 7, 2010.

McAteer, Davitt.  2008.  “Letter to the Editor.”  Appalachian Journal 36, no. 1-2 (Fall 2008/Winter 2009): 4-6.  Gives evidence of more than 500 deaths in the Monongah, W.Va., mine explosion of 1907 contrary to smaller company numbers cited in Joseph Tropea’s review (vol. 35, no. 4) of McAteer’s book, Monongah: The Tragic Story of the 1907 Mine Disaster, the Worst Industrial Accident in U.S. History (2007).

McAteer, J. Davitt.  2007.  Monongah: The Tragic Story of the Worst Industrial Accident in US History [1907 coal mine explosion; est. 500 deaths, mostly immigrants].  West Virginia and Appalachia series, no. 6.  Morgantown: West Virginia University Press.  331 pp.

McCall, Pete.  2001.  “Getting Serious About Clean Coal.”  United Mine Workers Journal 112 (March-April): 4-8.

McClelland, Jean.  2003.  “Central City Bung Company” [wooden stoppers used for brewery barrels; “Bung Capital of the World”; 1890s, Huntington].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 29 (Winter): 52-55.  See also appended: “The City of Central City: A Brief History” [Huntington], 56-61.

McClure, William G., and Jeremy F. Plant.  2005.  Virginian Railway in Color [200 photos; 1950s-60s; Va. and southern W.Va.; eventually part of Norfolk & Western].  Scotch Plains, N.J.: Morning Sun Books.  126 pp.

McClure, William G., and Jeremy F. Plant.  2007.  Norfolk and Western Steam in Color [steam locomotive photos from various routes].  Scotch Plains, N.J.: Morning Sun Books.  128 pp.

McCollester, Charles J.  2008.  The Point of Pittsburgh: Production and Struggle at the Forks of the Ohio.  Pittsburgh, Pa.: Battle of Homestead Foundation.  456 pp.  Labor history through workers’ stories, 1740s-1960s.

McColloch, Mark.  1999.  “Glory Days: 1941-1969" [union membership; stability].  In Keystone of Democracy: A History of Pennsylvania Workers, ed. H. Harris, P. Blatz, 213-256, 271-273.  Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.

McCombs, Douglas.  2001.  “O is for Oil” [boom oil industry overview].  Western Pennsylvania History 84 (Fall): 26-28.

McCormick, Charles H.  1997.  Seeing Reds: Federal Surveillance of Radicals in the Pittsburgh Mill District, 1917-1921 [includes steel and coal strikes of 1919].  Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.  244 pp.

McDaniel, Lynda.  2000.  “Tourism Rides High in the Southern Alleghenies” [Pa.; bicycle tourism].  Appalachia: Journal of the Appalachian Regional Commission 33 (May-August): 26-31.

McDevitt, Bette.  2012.  “Preserving History with the Pump House Gang.”  Western Pennsylvania History 95, no. 2 (Summer): 14-17.  Battle of Homestead Foundation, commemorates the 1892 steelworkers strike and showdown with Pinkerton Agency guards.

McDonough, Judith.  1997.  “Worker Solidarity, Judicial Oppression, and Police Repression in the Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania Coal Miner’s Strike, 1910-11.  Pennsylvania History 64 (Summer): 384-406.

McGraw, Seamus.  2011.  The End of Country.  New York: Random House.  245 pp.  Journalist’s account of the arrival of big-business Marcellus Shale hydrofrack drilling in rural Susquehanna County, Pa., and accompanying economic, energy policy, and geopolitical issues.

McIlmoil, Rory, Laura Hartz, Anne Hereford, and Evan Hansen.  2012.  The Impact of Coal on the Virginia State Budget (12 December 2012).  Morgantown, W.Va.: Downstream Strategies.  72 pp.  Tables, maps, charts.  “...the net impact of the Virginia coal industry, when taking all revenues and expenditures into account, amounted to a net cost to the Commonwealth of $21.9 million in Fiscal Year 2009.”  See also two other reports by McIlmoil and others related to this one focusing on Tennessee and West Virginia.  http://www.downstreamstrategies.com/documents/reports_publication/ds_impact_of_coal_on_virginia_state_budget_final_12-10-12.pdf.

McKibben, Bill.  2012.  “Why Not Frack?” [gas drilling].  New York Review of Books 59, no. 4 (March 8): 13-15.  Review essay of The End of Country, by Seamus McGraw (Random House, 2011); Under the Surface: Fracking, Fortunes, and the Fate of the Marcellus Shale, by Tom Wilber (Cornell University Press, 2012); and Gasland, a documentary film by Josh Fox (Docurama Films, 2010).  http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2012/mar/08/why-not-frack/.

McKinney, Gary S.  2003.  Oil on the Brain: The Discovery of Oil and the Excitement of the Boom in Northwestern Pennsylvania [1859].  Chicora, Pa.: Mechling Bookbindery.  308 pp.

McKinney, Gary S.  2008.  Oil on the Brain: The Discovery of Oil and the Excitement of the Boom in Northwestern Pennsylvania, Armstrong, Butler, Clarion, Venango Counties.  3rd ed.  Chicora, Pa.: Mechling Bookbindery.  512 pp.

McKinney, Gordon B.  1999.  “The Blair Committee Investigation of 1883: Industrialization in the Southern Mountains” [Birmingham, Chattanooga; capital and labor].  Appalachian Journal 26 (Winter): 150-166.

McKinney, Gordon.  2002.  “Zeb Vance and the Construction of the Western North Carolina Railroad” [1870s governor; black convict labor].  Appalachian Journal 29 (Fall 2001-Winter 2002): 58-67.

McKiven, Henry M., Jr.  1995.  Iron & Steel: Class, Race, and Community in Birmingham, Alabama, 1875-1920.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  223 pp.

McKnight, Connie L.  2009.  “Coal: Not My Job, But My Life” [b. 1957, Harlan Co., Ky.].  Interview by Jeanie Buchanan and Laura Daniti.  Foxfire Magazine 43, no. 1-2 (Spring/Summer): 55-62.

McNeil, Bryan T.  2011.  Combating Mountaintop Removal: New Directions in the Fight against Big Coal [Coal River Mountain Watch group, Boone Co., W.Va.].  Urbana: University of Illinois Press.  204 pp.  Contents: Welcome to Coal River -- Fighting back - again -- What are we fighting for? -- Strained solidarities -- The chase -- Whose development is it? -- Gender, solidarity, and symbolic capital -- Commons environmentalism and community activism.

McNeil, Bryan.  2005.  “Global Forces, Local Worlds: Mountaintop Removal and Appalachian Communities” [Coal River, W.Va.; Massey Energy; community-based opposition].  In The American South in a Global World, ed. J. Peacock, H. Watson, and C. Matthews, 99-110.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

McQuaid, John.  2009.  “Mining the Mountains” [Ansted, W.Va.; mountaintop removal destruction; controversy].  Smithsonian 39, no. 10 (January): 74-85.

McSpirit, Stephanie, Shaunna L. Scott, Sharon Hardesty, and Robert Welch.  2005.  “EPA Actions in Post Disaster Martin County, Kentucky: An Analysis of Bureaucratic Slippage and Agency Recreancy” [Oct. 2000 coal sludge flood; A. T. Massey Coal Co.].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 11, no. 1-2 (Spring-Fall): 30-59.  Addendum: “The Commonwealth of Kentucky Releases Monies for Independent, Outside Assessment of the Martin County Watershed, May 2005,” by Stephanie McSpirit and Nina McCoy, 59-63.

Meislik, Miriam.  2008.  Historic Photos of Pittsburgh.  Nashville, Tenn.: Turner Publishing Co.  206 pp.  Archival images, 1860s to present.  See also: http://digital.library.pitt.edu/pittsburgh/.

Merlavage, Bill.  2008.  Steam Engines of Maryland & West Virginia [pictorial].  San Francisco: Blurb.com.  110 pp., unpaginated.  110 color photos.

Metheny, Karen Bescherer.  2007.  From the Miners’ Doublehouse: Archaeology and Landscape in a Pennsylvania Coal Company Town [Helvetia; case study; oral history].  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.  305 pp.

Metz, Lance E.  2000.  “The Prosecution of the Molly Maguires in Carbon County” [Pa.].  In Canal History and Technology Proceedings 19: 126-142.  Easton, Pa.: Canal History and Technology Press.

Metzgar, Jack.  2000.  Striking Steel: Solidarity Remembered [collective bargaining history; 1950s; memoir: Johnstown, Pa.].  Philadelphia: Temple University Press.  264 pp.

Miller-Lanning, Darlene.  2009.  “‘Interesting Alike to Our Sight and Pride’: Art and History Research at the Scranton Iron Furnaces.”  Pennsylvania History 76, no. 4 (Autumn): 484-494.  Maps, survey documents, artistic prints; 1840s and 1850s; Lackawanna Co.

Mills, Donald L., Jr.  2010.  The Kanawha & Michigan Railroad Bridgeline to the Lakes, 1888-1922.  Huntington, W.Va.: Mid-Atlantic Highlands.  218 pp.  “...a predecessor component of Norfolk Southern that operated between Corning, Ohio, and Gauley Bridge, West Virginia.”

Milnes, Gerald.  1997.  “The First Run of the C&O: The New River Fights Back” [1873 account of railroad passage through newly opened New River Gorge, W.Va.].  In  Proceedings, New River Symposium, April 11-12, 1997, Glade Springs Resort, Daniels, West Virginia, 29-40.  Glen Jean, W.Va.: National Park Service.

Minchin, Timothy J.  1997.  What Do We Need a Union For?: The TWUA in the South, 1945-1955   [Textile Workers Union of America].  Fred W. Morrison Series in Southern Studies.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  285 pp.

Minchin, Timothy J.  2001.  “Permanent Replacements and the Breakdown of the ‘Social Accord’ in Calera, Alabama, 1974-1999” [cement industry, labor relations, strike; Shelby Co.].  Labor History 42 (November): 371-396.

Minchin, Timothy J.  2005.  Don’t Sleep with Stevens!: The J. P. Stevens Campaign and the Struggle to Organize the South, 1963-80 [textile workers].  New Perspectives on the History of the South.  Gainesville: University Press of Florida.  239 pp.

Minchin, Timothy J.  2005.  Fighting Against the Odds: A History of Southern Labor

Since World War II.  Gainesville: University Press of Florida.  232 pp.

Minchin, Timothy J.  2008.  “An Uphill Fight: Ernest F. Hollings and the Struggle to Protect the South Carolina Textile Industry, 1959-2005.”  South Carolina Historical Magazine 109, no. 3 (July): 187-211.

Minchin, Timothy J.  2009.  “‘It Knocked This City to Its Knees’: The Closure of Pillowtex Mills in Kannapolis, North Carolina and the Decline of the US Textile Industry” [2003; formerly Cannon Mills].  Labor History 50, no. 3 (August): 287-311.  Mass layoff of nearly 5000 workers.

Minchin, Timothy J.  2012.  “‘Us is spelled U.S.’: The Crafted With Pride Campaign and the Fight Against Deindustrialization in the Textile and Apparel Industry.”  Labor History 53, no. 1 (February): 1-23.

Minchin, Timothy J.  2012.  “Shutdowns in the Sun-Belt: The Decline of Textile and Apparel Industry and Deindustrialization in the South.”  In Life and Labor in the New New South, ed. R. Zieger, 258-288.  Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

Mitchell, Broadus.  [1921] 2001.  The Rise of Cotton Mills in the South.  Reprint, with a new introduction by David L. Carlton.  Southern Classics.  Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.  281 pp.  Originally published: Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.

Mitchelson, Ronald L., and others.  1997.  “The Changing South: Transportation and Communications Since 1947.”  Southeastern Geographer 37 (November): 268-294.

Mittal, Anu K.  2010.  “Surface Coal Mining Information on Clean Water Act Section 404 Permit Reviews Under Enhanced Coordination Procedures in Appalachia, Focusing on West Virgina.”  Washington: U.S. Govt. Accountability Office.  36 pp.  (GovDoc: GA 1.41:GAO-11-101 R.)  Summary: http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-11-101R.  Full report: http://purl.fdlp.gov/GPO/gpo7518.

Model for the Creation of a Coal History Museum in North Central WV Based on Models Found in Southern WV and Wales.  2009.  Traditions: A Journal of West Virginia Folk Culture and Educational Awareness 11: 39-41.  “2008 Appalachian Teaching Project,” Fairmont State University.

Modell, Judith;  photographs by Charlee Brodsky.  1998.  A Town Without Steel: Envisioning Homestead [Pa. mill town; deindustrialization].  Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.  284 pp.

Monti, Richard A., and Sandra Skowron, ed.  2008.  Forging Ahead: Pittsburgh at 250. Pittsburgh: Trib Total Media [Tribine-Review].  152 pp.  Contents: Forging ahead -- Evolution of the region -- Industry and steel -- Immigration and growth -- Renaissance -- Conflict, mayhem and disasters -- Soldiering -- Technology, medicine and education -- Art and architecture -- Sports -- Uniquely Pittsburgh.

Montrie, Chad.  2002.  “Agriculture, Christian Stewardship, and Aesthetics: Ohio Farmers’ Opposition to Coal Surface Mining in the 1940s.”  Ohio History 111 (Winter-Spring): 44-63.  http://publications.ohiohistory.org/ohstemplate.cfm?action=toc&vol=111.

Montrie, Chad.  2003.  To Save the Land and People: A History of Opposition to Surface Coal Mining in Appalachia [1960s-70s].  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  245 pp.

Montrie, Chad. 2005. “‘To Have, Hold, Develop, and Defend’: Natural Rights and the Movement to Abolish Strip Mining in Eastern Kentucky” [1954-1977; 1960s activism].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 11, no. 1-2 (Spring-Fall): 64-82.

Montrie, Chad.  2007.  “Continuity in the Midst of Change: Work and Environment for West Virginia Mountaineers” [19th-century to 1960s; farmer to miner to factory hand].  West Virginia History: A Journal of Regional Studies, new series, vol. 1, no. 1 (Spring): 1-22.

Montrie, Chad.  2008.  “Degrees of Separation: Nature and the Shift from Farmer to Miner to Factory Hand in Southern West Virginia.”  Chap. 4 in Making a Living: Work and Environment in the United States, 71-90.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Mooney, Chris.  2012.  “The Truth About Fracking” [groundwater contamination].  Scientific American 305, no. 5 (November): 80-85.  Diagrams, illustrations.  http://www.nature.com/scientificamerican/journal/v305/n5/full/scientificamerican1111-80.html.

Moore, Marat.  2008.  “Chest-Messaging in the Coalfields: A Look Back at the T-Shirts of the Pittston Strike.”  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 24, no. 2 (Fall/Winter): 26-28.  UMWA slogans; 1989-90 Southwest Va.: Dickenson and Russell Counties.

Moore, Toby.  2000.  “Emerging Memorial Landscapes of Labor Conflict in the Cotton Textile South” Professional Geographer 52 (November): 684-696.

Moore, Toby.  2001.  “Dismantling the South’s Cotton Mill Village System.”  In The Second Wave: Southern Industrialization from the 1940s to the 1970s, ed. P. Scranton, 114-145.  Athens: University of Georgia Press.

Morgenstern, Wes, ed.  1999.  Working on the Western Maryland Railway: A Collection of Employee Interviews [29 interviews; 1930s-1970s; Md., Pa., W.Va., Va.].  Union Bridge, Md.: Western Maryland Railway Historical Society.  176 pp.

Morrison, Roger.  1997.  “New River Lead Mines, Austinville, Va.” [1760-1996].  In  Proceedings, New River Symposium, April 11-12, 1997, Glade Springs Resort, Daniels, West Virginia, 100-109.  Glen Jean, W.Va.: National Park Service.

Morrison, Roger.  2000.  “John Marshall and the James River & Kanawha Canal” [1818].  In Proceedings, New River Symposium, April 15-16, 1999, Boone, North Carolina, 59-67.  Glen Jean, W.Va.: National Park Service.

Mosher, Anne E.  2004.  Capital’s Utopia: Vandergrift, Pennsylvania, 1855-1916 [steel company’s model industrial town].  Creating the North American Landscape.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.  249 pp.

Mouawad, Jad, and Clifford Krauss.  2009.  “Dark Side of a Natural Gas Boom” [Pa.].  New York Times, 8 December, 1(B).  1649 words.  Marcellus shale; pollution from drilling.

Mountaintop Removal Mining: The Coal Industry vs. the Environment.  2010.  Special issue, Congressional Digest: A Pro & Con Monthly 89, no. 5 (May): 129-160.  Contents: Foreword -- Mountaintop mining overview: background, regulations, and current controversies -- Surface coal mining guidelines: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency actions -- Surface coal mining in Appalachia: scale and impact of operations -- Legislative background on mountaintop mining: recent action in Congress -- Pro & Con: “Should Congress and the Obama administration take steps to ban mountaintop mining?”  PRO: Sen. Benjamin Cardin; Maria Gunnoe; Margaret A. Palmer.  CON: Sen. James Inhofe; National Mining Association; West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection.  http://congressionaldigest.com/issue/mountaintop-removal-mining/.

Mulcahy, Richard P.  2000.  A Social Contract for the Coal Fields: The Rise and Fall of the United Mine Workers of America Welfare and Retirement Fund [1946-1978].  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.  274 pp.

Mulcahy, Richard P.  2012.  “Musmanno’s Fury.”  Western Pennsylvania History 95, no. 4 (Winter 2012-2013): 44-57.  Michael A. Musmanno (1897-1968), justice of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court and author of Black Fury (1966), was a champion of immigrants and workers and fought to outlaw the Coal & Iron Police used by coal operators.

Muller, Edward K.  2006.  “The Steel Valley” [Monongahela River Valley].  In Pittsburgh and the Appalachians: Cultural and Natural Resources in a Postindustrial Age, ed. J. Scarpaci, 36-48.  Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Muller, Edward.  2000.  “The Steel Valley” [Monongahela Valley restructuring].  In A Geographic Perspective of Pittsburgh and the Alleghenies: From Precambrian to Post-Industrial, ed. K. Patrick and J. Scarpaci, 79-86. Washington, D.C.: Association of American Geographers.

Muller, Nicholas Z., Robert Mendelsohn, and William Nordhaus.  2011.  “Environmental Accounting for Pollution in the United States Economy.”  American Economic Review 101, no. 5 (August): 1649-1675.  “The paper estimates the air pollution damages for each industry in the United States....The largest industrial contributor to external costs is coal-fired electric generation.”  http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/aer.101.5.1649.

Muncy, Robyn.  2009.  “Coal-Fired Reforms: Social Citizenship, Dissident Miners, and the Great Society.”  Journal of American History 96, no. 1 (June): 72-98.  Traces connections among UMWA Welfare and Retirement Fund, fears of miner riots if hospitals were closed, and Kennedy administration task force and eventual creation of an economic development program for Appalachia.

Musick, Ruth Ann, comp.  [1952] 2004.  “Early Mines and Mining Methods in Monongah (Oral History Project Completed by Dr. Ruth Ann Musick’s Folk Literature Class, 1952, Fairmont State College).”  Traditions: A Journal of West Virginia Folk Culture and Educational Awareness 9: 27-34.

Musson, Robert.  2012.  Brewing in Greater Pittsburgh [photo retrospective].  Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia.  128 pp.  Includes 220 historic images of “the most prominent brewers in the Greater Pittsburgh area” and surrounding counties in southwestern Pa.

Myers, Edward J.  1998.  “Night Trains Are Forever” [O. Winston Link’s photographs of steam locomotives].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 15 (Winter): 13-16.

Myers, Mark.  2009.  “Depression, Recovery, Instability: The NRA and the McDowell County, West Virginia, Coal Industry, 1920-1938” [National Recovery Administration].  In Culture, Class, and Politics in Modern Appalachia: Essays in Honor of Ronald L. Lewis, ed. J. Egolf, K. Fones-Wolf, and L. Martin, 283-304.  Morgantown: West Virginia University Press.

Nance, Karen N. Cartwright.  2003.  “Oscar Cartwright, Sr.: A West Virginia CIO Organizer” [Congress of Industrial Organizations; 1930s-40s].  In Great Kanawha Valley Chemical Heritage, Symposium Proceedings, May 3, 2003, Institute, West Virginia, comp. Lee R. Maddex, 65-77.  Morgantown, W.Va.: Institute for the History of Technology and Industrial Archaeology.

National Committee for the Defense of Political Prisoners.  [1932, 1970] 2008.  Harlan Miners Speak: Report on Terrorism in the Kentucky Coal Fields [testimonies; essays].  New edition, with a new introduction by John C. Hennen.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  348 pp.  Originally published: New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1932.  The Committee of eleven left-leaning writers was headed by Theodore Dreiser and included Sherwood Anderson and John Dos Passos.  The Report is an outside investigation of labor repression and civil rights violations against striking miners who had turned in desperation from the UMW to the NMU (National Miners Union, affiliated with the American Communist Party).

Navarro,  Mireya.  2011.  “With Gas Drilling Next Door, County in New York Gets an Economic Lift.”  New York Times, 27 December, 18(A).  1,265 words, map, photos.  Hyrofracking boom in Bradford and Susquehanna Counties, Pa., is affecting neighboring N.Y. counties of Chemung (Elmira) and Broome (Binghamton), economically and environmentally.  www.nytimes.com/2011/12/28/nyregion/hydrofracking-gives-chemung-county-ny-economic-boost.html.

Nelson, Sue.  2009.  “Silicon Valley’s Secret Recipe” [Spruce Pine, Mitchell Co., N.C.; high-purity quartz source for silicon wafers].  BBC Radio 4.  London, England: BBC,  2 August: 949 words.  http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/technology/8178580.stm.

Nesbitt, J. Todd.  2012.  “Southern West Virginia and the Contradiction of Coal.”  Appalachian Journal 39, no. 1-2 (Fall 2011/Winter 2012): 136-140.  Review essay of Removing Mountains: Extracting Nature and Identity in the Appalachian Coalfields, by Rebecca R. Scott (University of Minnesota Press, 2010).

Noe, Kenneth.  1994.  Southwest Virginia's Railroad: Modernization  and the Sectional Crisis.  Champaign: University of Illinois  Press.  221 pp.

Norwood, Stephen H.  2002.  Strikebreaking & Intimidation: Mercenaries and Masculinity in Twentieth-Century America.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  328 pp.

Nyden, Paul J.  1997.  “Coal Companies Abandon Workers Comp” [award-winning article reprinted from W.Va.’s Charleston Gazette].  Southern Exposure 25 (Spring/Summer): 39-41.

Nyden, Paul J.  2007.  “Rank-and-File Rebellions in the Coalfields, 1964-80.”  Monthly Review 58, no. 10 (March): 38-53.  Topics include: 1969 Black Lung Strike; “Jock” Yablonski and “Tony” Boyle; Miners for Democracy; mine tragedies in Ky. and W.Va.; UMW president Arnold Miller; McDowell County, W.Va.; A. T. Massey Coal’s union busting; 1989 Pittston strike; coal town life; political involvement of coal operators; and absentee ownership.

Nystrom, Eric.  2007.  “Miner, Minstrel, Memory: Or, Why the Smithsonian has Bill Keating’s Pants” [authenticity issue; anthracite miner troubadour, 1886-1964].  Pennsylvania Magazine of History & Biography 131, no. 1 (January): 81-101.

O’Bradovich, Mike.  2009.  “Mike O’Bradovich: Three Stories from the Mines” [Harlan Co., Ky.; environment; pollution; near-death experience].  Interview by Foxfire students.  Foxfire Magazine 43, no. 1-2 (Spring/Summer): 43-54.

O’Donnell, James H.  2009.  Out of the Mud: Hiram Carpenter and the Ohio River Valley, 1880-1950.  Huntington, W.Va: The John Deaver Drinko Academy.  121 pp.  St. Marys, W.Va.; business and industrial development.

O’Leary, Sean.  2012.  “The Impact of the Decline of Coal and the Rise of Natural Gas on Local Severance Tax Revenue (December 11, 2012).”  West Virginia Center on Budget & Policy, Charleston, W.Va.  888 words, plus chart.  http://www.wvpolicy.org/the-impact-of-the-decline-of-coal-and-the-rise-of-natural-gas-on-local-severance-tax-revenue.

Olwell, Russell B.  2004.  At Work in the Atomic City: A Labor and Social History of Oak Ridge, Tennessee.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.  165 pp.

Olwell, Russell.  1998.  “Help Wanted for Secret City: Recruiting Workers for the Manhattan Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 1942-1946.”  Tennessee Historical Quarterly 58 (Spring): 52-69.

Olwell, Russell.  2004.  At Work in the Atomic City: A Labor and Social History of Oak Ridge, Tennessee [1940s; Manhattan Project].  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.  165 pp.

One-Hundred-Ten Years Strong: UMWA Time Line, 1890-2000 [60 key events].  2000.  United Mine Workers Journal 111 (January-February): 8-15.

Oppegard, Tony.  1996.  “Coal Companies Are Lying, Miners Are Dying...”  Appalachian Heritage 24 (Fall): 22-28.  Reprints testimony of three disabled, retired miners before a federal advisory committee on the elimination of pneumoconiosis.

Oppegard, Tony.  1996.  “Mine Safety and the Right Wing’s Agenda.”  Appalachian Heritage 24 (Spring): 5-9.

Orr, John W.  2001.  Set Up Running: The Life of a Pennsylvania Railroad Engineman, 1904-1949.  University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.  376 pp.

Outland, Robert B.  2004.  Tapping the Pines: The Naval Stores Industry in the American South [pine tar, pitch, turpentine; N.C., S.C., Ga.; 17th-20th centuries; forced labor].  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.  352 pp.

Page, Lewis Wendell.  1999.  Belmont Coal Mines of Jackson County, Alabama: (1877-1940). Birmingham, Ala.: Page Publishing Company.  240 pp.

Painter, Jacqueline B.  2001.  “Stackhouse, Putnam, and Runion: Villages on the French Broad River” [1880-1920 railroad, timber, mining era].  In May We All Remember Well: A Journal of the History & Cultures of Western North Carolina, Vol. 2, ed. R. S. Brunk, 120-140.  Asheville, N.C.: Robert S. Brunk Auction Services, Inc.

Palmer, M. A., et al.  2010.  “Mountaintop Mining Consequences” [water pollution; tables].  Science 372, no. 5962 (January 8): 148-149.  Policy Forum; Science and Regulation; “Our analyses...revealed serious environmental impacts that mitigation practices cannot successfully address.”

Palus, Matthew M., and Paul A. Shackel.  2006.  They Worked Regular: Craft, Labor, and Family in the Industrial Community of Virginius Island [19th-century W.Va.; Shenandoah River adj. Harpers Ferry].  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.  147 pp.

Papa, Carrie, ed.  2004.  A Mile Deep and Black as Pitch: An Oral History of the Franklin and Sterling Hill Mines [Sussex Co., N.J.].  Blacksburg, Va.: McDonald & Woodward.  378 pp.

Parks, Richard.  2007.  “In Search of Western Pennsylvania’s Stone Iron Furnaces” [profiles of several of 135 still visible].  Western Pennsylvania History 90, no. 1 (Spring): 36-41.

Parrish, Charles E., and Leland R. Johnson.  1998.  “J. Stoddard Johnston Versus the Army Engineers on Canalization of the Kentucky River” [1880-1917; 14 dams; 255 miles].  Filson Club History Quarterly 72 (January): 3-23.

Parrish, Charles E., and Leland R. Johnson.  1997.  “Engineering the Kentucky River: A Disastrous Debut” [Carrollton to Beattyville].  Register of the Kentucky Historical Society 95 (Autumn): 369-394.

Parsons, Rachel.  2011.  “‘Boogie, Chilluns’: On Saving Mountains and Crossing the Imaginary Line” [Raleigh Co., W.Va.].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 27, no. 1 (Summer): 51-52.  Account of 2009 nonviolent civil disobedience and arrest protesting Massey Energy’s massive slurry pond above Marsh Fork Elementary School and nearby mountaintop removal mining.

Patton, Randall L.  1997.  “‘A World of Opportunity . . . Within the Tufting Empire?’: Labor Relations in North Georgia’s Carpet Industry, 1960-1975.”  Georgia Historical Quarterly 81 (Summer): 426-451.

Patton, Randall L.  1998.  “Textile Organizing in a Sunbelt South Community: Northwest Georgia’s Carpet Industry in the Early 1960s” [Dalton, Ga.; TWUA failed campaign].  Labor History 39 (August): 291-309.

Patton, Randall L.  2002.  Shaw Industries: A History [dominant carpet mfr.; Dalton, Ga.; interviews]. University of Georgia Press.  217 pp.

Patton, Randall L., with David B. Parker.  1999.  Carpet Capital: The Rise of a New South Industry [tufted carpet industry; northwest Ga.].  Athens: University of Georgia Press.  341 pp.

Patton, Randall L., with David B. Parker.  [1999] 2003.  Carpet Capital: The Rise of a New South Industry [early 19th-century to 1930s; Dalton, Ga.].  Reprint.  Economy and Society in the Modern South.  Athens: University of Georgia Press.  341 pp.

Patton, Randall.  2001.  “Regional Advantage in the New South: The Creation of North Georgia’s Carpet Industry, 1945-1970” [Dalton, Ga.].  In The Second Wave: Southern Industrialization from the 1940s to the 1970s, ed. P. Scranton, 81-113.  Athens: University of Georgia Press.

Payne, Dale.  2008.  A Pictorial History of Cabin Creek: A Collection of Photographs from the Earliest Days on Cabin Creek: Combined with a Brief History of Each Community [W.Va.], Vol. 1.  North Kansas City, Mo.: Technical Communication Services.  217 pp.  See also: Vol. 2 (2008); Vol. 3 (2010).

Payne, Dale.  2011.  The Mine War, 1912-1913, Cabin Creek & Paint Creek: Commemorating the 100th Anniversary.  Fayetteville, W.Va.: D. Payne.  168 pp.  Photographs, maps, documents.

Peach, Sara.  2012.  “Mining May Have Harmed 22% of Streams in Southern West Virginia.”  Chemical & Engineering News, 26 July.  “Water Pollution: As mined land has grown, sensitive insect species have disappeared, researchers find,” using NASA satellite images, 1976-2005, then mapping chemical and biological data from 223 streams.

Pendarvis, Edwina.  2008.  “‘Don’t Feed the Bear’: A Response to Silas House’s Speech, ‘A Conscious Heart’” [mountaintop removal mining].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 14, no. 1-2 (Spring-Fall): 28-33.  Response to keynote address at 2008 Appalachian Studies Conference by Silas House [“A Conscious Heart,”  Journal of Appalachian Studies 14:7-19].  See also Dwight Billings’s “Response,” pp. 20-27.

Percival, Gwendoline E., and Chester J. Kulesa.  1995.  Illustrating an Anthracite Era: The Photographic Legacy of John Horgan, Jr.  [photographs].  Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission and Anthracite Heritage Museum and Iron Furnaces Associates.  73 pp.

Peresie, Jennifer L.  1997.  “Crusader With a Camera: Lewis Hine and His Battle Against Child ‘Slavery’” [photographs; coal and textile industries].  Pennsylvania Heritage 23 (Summer): 4-13.

Perich, Terry, and Kathleen Perich.  2006.  Jeannette [Pa.; photo-retrospective].  Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia.  127 pp.  Founded in 1888 in Westmoreland County, and known as the Glass City, Jeannette “produced more glass in various forms than any other city in the world.”

Perry, Marlene West, and Dale Payne.  2007.  The History of Eskdale, Early 1800's - 1950's: “The Shopping Center and Capitol of Cabin Creek” [Kanawha Co., W.Va.].  [No place; no publisher].  176 pp.

Peterson, Nadine Miller, and Dan Zagorski.  2001.  “Zinc Mining in the Saucon Valley Region of Pennsylvania, 1846-1986” [Lehigh Co.].  Canal History and Technology Proceedings 20: 139-162.  Easton, Pa.: Canal History and Technology Press.

Peyton, Billy Joe, and Anne-Marie Turnage.  1996.  Unite...The Most Remote Quarters: An Archaeological and Historical Survey of the Staunton-Parkersburg Turnpike.  Technical Report. Morgantown, W.Va.: Institute for the History of Technology & Industrial Archaeology.  99 pp.

Phelan, Craig.  1996.  “John Mitchell and the Politics of the Trade Agreement, 1898-1917.”  In The United Mine Workers of America: A Model of Industrial Solidarity?, ed. J. Laslett, 72-103.  University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Phelan, Craig.  1996.  “The Making of a Labor Leader: John Mitchell and the Anthracite Strike of 1900.”  Pennsylvania History 63 (Winter): 53-77.

Pittston 20 Years Later [1989 coal strike, southwest Va.].  2009.  Special Commemorative Issue. Photos by Earl Dotter.  United Mine Workers Journal 120, no. 2 (March-April): 4-12; sidebar on resultant 1992 “Coal Act.”  http://www.umwa.org/files/u1/UMWJrlMarApr09FIN.pdf.

Plant, Jeremy F.  2008.  Western Maryland in Color. Vol. 2, Steam and First Generation Diesels.  Scotch Plains, N.J.: Morning Sun Books.  128 pp.  Color photos; Western Maryland Railway Company; W.Va.

Plasky, Joe.  2007.  “‘Worth Their Weight in Gold’: Recalling Red Jacket Safety Day” [annual picnic festival and mine rescue contest; 1940s-50s Mingo Co.; Red Jacket Coal Co.].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 33, no. 2 (Summer): 38-45.

Platania, Joseph.  1999.  “The Elusive Jarvis-Huntington: Early Automobiles of West Virginia” [1912; W.Va.-built].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 25 (Fall): 42-46.

Pope, James Gray.  2003.  “The Western Pennsylvania Coal Strike of 1933, Part II: Lawmaking from Above and the Demise of Democracy in the United Mine Workers.”  Labor History 44 (May): 235-264.

Pope, James Gray.  2003.  “The Western Pennsylvania Coal Strike of 1933, Part I: Lawmaking from Below and the Revival of the United Mine Workers.”  Labor History 44 (February): 15-48.

Portelli, Alessandro.  2010.  They Say in Harlan County: An Oral History [Ky.; UMWA].  New York: Oxford University Press.  446 pp.  Weatherford Award winner for nonfiction.  Draws on 150 interviews collected over 25 years at this site of 1930s and 1970s labor strikes made famous by the1976 documentary, “Harlan County U.S.A.”

Portelli, Alessandro.  2012.  “‘Their Words Still Haunt Me’: An Interview with Alessandro Portelli.”  By Jesse Buckwalter, Kristen R. Dearmin, Rebekah Epling, Jameson Jones, Aaron Lancaster, Skye McFarland, Trevor McKenzie, Rachel Lanier Roberts, Leigh Walters, Bill Ward II, with Patricia D. Beaver.  Appalachian Journal 40, no. 1-2 (Fall 2012/Winter 2013): 78-93.  Includes a bibliography, “Works by Alessandro Portelli,” 93 [19 books, 1969-2011], including They Say in Harlan County: An Oral History (2011).

Post, Robert C.  2003.  “‘The Last Steam Railroad in America’: Shaffers Crossing, Roanoke, Virginia, 1958.”  Technology and Culture 44 (July): 560-565.

Presnell, Lowell.  2001.  Mines, Miners, and Minerals: Western North Carolina’s Mountain Empire [history: incl. iron, gems, gold, mica, etc.].  Alexander, N.C.: Land of Sky Books.  256 pp.

Prevade, Daniel.  2012.  “Horror & Heroism: The Aetna Chemical Explosion.”  Western Pennsylvania History 95, no. 3 (Fall): 48-61.  Two-hundred died in this 1918 disaster at a dynamite manufacturing plant near Oakdale, Pa.

Prince, R. P., and A. Milton Stanley.  2000.  “What Does ‘K-25’ Stand For?: Deciphering the Origins of the Manhattan Project Code Names in Oak Ridge” [Tenn.; 1945].  Journal of East Tennessee History 72: 82-86.

Pritt, Troy Wye, and Troy Lynn Pritt.  2005. “Wye Plummer Pritt: Fifty Years as a Track Man” [Western Maryland Railroad, 1900-1950]. Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 31, no. 4 (Winter): 54-59.

Puckett, Anita.  1998.  “Rights, Place, Orders, and Imperatives in Rural Eastern Kentucky Task-focused Discourse.”  In More Than Class: Studying Power in U.S. Workplaces, ed. A. Kingsolver, 96-123.  Albany: State University of New York Press.

Pugh, Chris.  1998.  “Smart Road” [experimental high-tech highway; Blacksburg, Va., to I-81].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 15 (Winter): 25-29.

Purdy, Jedediah S.  1998.  “Rape of the Appalachians” [real costs of mountaintop removal strip mining].  American Prospect no. 41 (November/December): 28-33.

Quigley, Joan.  2007.  The Day the Earth Caved In: An American Mining Tragedy [Centralia, Pa.; 40-year underground mine fire; social consequences].  New York: Random House.  237 pp.

Quinn, Edythe Ann.  1997.  “The New York Milk Strikes” [Appalachian N.Y.; Dairymen’s League; 1894-1997].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 14 (Winter): 38-41, 48.

Raitz, Karl.  1999.  “American Roads, Roadside America” [including National Road/U.S. 40].  Geographical Review 88 (July): 363-387.

Rakes, Paul H.  1999.  “Technology in Transition: The Dilemmas of Early Twentieth-Century Coal Mining.”  Journal of Appalachian Studies 5 (Spring): 27-60.

Rakes, Paul H.  2008.  “West Virginia Coal Mine Fatalities: The Subculture of Danger and a Statistical Overview of the Pre-enforcement Era” [graphs, 1897-1989].  West Virginia History: A Journal of Regional Studies, new series, 2, no. 1 (Spring): 1-26.

Rakes, Paul.  2009.  “A Combat Scenario: Early Coal Mining and the Culture of Danger.”  In Culture, Class, and Politics in Modern Appalachia: Essays in Honor of Ronald L. Lewis, ed. J. Egolf, K. Fones-Wolf, and L. Martin, 56-87.  Morgantown: West Virginia University Press.  Coal mining disasters and deaths analogous to battlefield experiences.

Rau, William Herman.  2002.  Traveling the Pennsylvania Railroad: The Photographs of William H. Rau [1890s railroad scenery across Pa.].  Edited by John C. Van Horne with Eileen E. Drelick; essays by Kenneith Finkel, Mary Panzer, and John R. Stilgoe.  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press in cooperation with the Library Company of Philadelphia.  260 pp.

Ray, Jack H., and Glenn Ray.  1995.  “Social Relations and Leisure Activities in Underground Coal Mines of Northern Appalachia.”  Tennessee Anthropologist 20 (Spring): 18-34.

Reece, Erik.  2005.  “Death of a Mountain: Radical Strip Mining and the Leveling of Appalachia” [mountaintop removal, Lost Mountain, Ky.; excerpt from forthcoming book].  Harper’s Magazine 310 (April): 41-60.  See also: http://www.wesjones.com/death.htm#Title.

Reece, Erik.  2006.  “Harlan County Blues” [indicts industrial and government safety policies in recent Sago, W.Va, and Harlan Co., Ky., miner deaths; reissue of 1976 documentary “Harlan County U.S.A.”].  Nation, 17 July, 5-8.

Reece, Erik.  2006.  “Who Killed the Miners?” [W.Va.; January death toll numbers 16 at Sago and Alma mines].  Nation, 27 February, 5-8.

Reece, Erik.  2006.  Lost Mountain: A Year in the Vanishing Wilderness: Radical Strip Mining and the Devastation of Appalachia [mountaintop removal; Perry Co., Ky., 2003-2004].  Foreword by Wendell Berry; photographs by John J. Cox.  New York: Riverhead Books.  250 pp.

Reece, Erik.  2011.  “Ky. Voices: Coal Industry ‘Gift’ Cost UK a Celebration.”  Lexington Herald-Leader, 6 March.  901 words.  Kentucky writer Wendell Berry accepts the National Humanities Medal from President Obama subsequent to his withdrawing 100 boxes of his papers from U.Ky. archives in response to its renaming the men’s basketball dorm, “Wildcat Coal Lodge,” in exchange for a multimillion dollar gift from a coal company.  http://www.kentucky.com/2011/03/06/1659827/ky-voices-coal-industry-gift-cost.html#ixzz1FpEvL4Xe.

Rees, Jonathan. 1997. “Homestead in Context: Andrew Carnegie and the Decline of the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers” [1880-90s].  Pennsylvania History 64 (Autumn): 509-533.

Rees, Jonathan.  2004.  Managing the Mills: Labor Policy in the American Steel Industry during the Nonunion Era.  Lanham, Md.: University Press of America.  298 pp.

Reilly, Robert T.  [1962] 2000.  Rebels in the Shadows [juvenile literature; 1870s anthracite region; Molly Maguires].  Reprint, with a foreword by Margaret Mary Kimmel.  Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.  192 pp.  Originally published: Milwaukee, Wis.: Bruce Publishing Company.

Reliving Coal’s Heritage in Pennsylvania [profiles website “The Coal and Coke Heritage Center: Preserving the History of the Connellsville (Pa.) Coke Region, 1870-1970” [http://www.coalandcoke.org].  2001. United Mine Workers Journal 112 (September-October): 23.

Revkin, Andrew C.  2012.  “Songs of this Fossil Age: A Coal Miner’s Death Foretold” [ballad; two video clips].  Dot Earth (blog).  New York Times, 29 February, Opinion.  639 words. http://dotearth.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/02/29/songs-of-this-fossil-age-a-coal-miners-death-foretold/?emc=eta1.

Rhodes, Rick.  2007.  The Ohio River: In American History and Voyaging on Today’s River: Along with the Allegheny, Monongahela, Kanawha, Muskingum, Kentucky, Green and Wabash Rivers [300 years of river local history].  Edited by Bill Byrnes.  St. Petersburg, Fla.: Heron Island Guides.  320 pp.

Rhodes, Rick.  2008.  The Ohio River: In American History: Along with the Allegheny, Monongahela, Kanawha, Muskingum, Kentucky, Green and Wabash Rivers.  Photographs and sketches by Rick Rhodes; edited by Bill Byrnes.  St. Petersburg, Fla.: Heron Island Guides.  224 pp.  Abridged, updated version of 2007 edition.

Ribble, Rufus, George A. Bragg, Morgan G. Bragg, and Melody Bragg.  2005.  West Virginia Coalfield Photography 1900-2005: Panoramic Photography [500 historical images].  Beaver, W.Va.: GEM Publications.  184 pp.

Richards, J. Stuart.  2007.  Death in the Mines: Disasters and Rescues in the Anthracite Coal Fields of Pennsylvania.  Charleston, S.C.: History Press.  125 pp.  Contents: Fire in the mines -- Explosion in the mines -- Cave ins / Roof Collapse/ In-Rush of Water.

Richards, John Stuart.  2002.  Early Coal Mining in the Anthracite Region [Pa.; pictorial retrospective].  Images of America.  Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia. 128 pp.

Ricketts, Elizabeth.  1998.  “The Struggle for Civil Liberties and Unionization in the Coal Fields: The Free Speech Case of Vintondale, Pennsylvania, 1922” [western Pa.; Cambria Co.].  Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 122 (October): 319-352.

Rittenhouse, Ron.  2007.  Monongah Coal Mine Disaster 1907-2007: Pictorial History of a Monumental Tragedy [with names of approx. 350 miners killed; Marion Co., W.Va.].  Westover, W.Va.: R. Rittenhouse.  94 pp.

Robertson, David.  2006.  Hard As the Rock Itself: Place and Identity in the American Mining Town [Toluca, Ill., Cokedale, Colo., Picher, Okla.].  Mining the American West.  Boulder: University Press of Colorado.  216 pp.

Robertson, Scott.  2006.  “The Tennessee Valley Authority in the Twenty-First Century: It’s Not Easy Being Green” [power generation switch; table].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 22, no. 2 (Fall/Winter): 27-29.

Romano, Mark.  2009.  Brooks Run, We Mine Coal: Snapshots in Time, 2008-2009 [W.Va.; pictorial].  Summersville, W.Va.: Images by Romano.  367 pp.

Roscigno, Vincent J., and William F. Danaher.  2004.  The Voice of Southern Labor: Radio, Music, and Textile Strikes, 1929-1934.  Social Movements, Protest, & Contention, vol. 19.  Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.  216 pp.  [cf. earlier studies: Like a Family: The Making of a Southern Cotton Mill World (1987), and Gastonia 1929: The Story of the Loray Mill Strike (1995)].

Rose, James D.  2001.  Duquesne and the Rise of Steel Unionism.  The Working Class in American History.  Champaign: University of Illinois Press.  284 pp.

Rose, Mariel.  2009.  “Moving Capital, Moving Workers, and the Mountain Work Ethic” [Western N.C.].  Chap. 7 in Migration and the Transformation of the Southern Workplace Since 1945, ed. R. Cassanello and C. Davis, 174-201.  Gainesville: University Press of Florida.  Migration of both corporations and foreign workers into the region.

Rossel, Jorg.  2002.  “Industrial Structure, Union Strategy, and Strike Activity in American Bituminous Coal Mining, 1881-1894.”  Social Science History 26 (Spring): 1-32.

Rotenstein, David S.  1997.  “Leather Bound: Nineteenth-Century Leather Tanners in Allegheny City.”  Pittsburgh History 80 (Spring): 32-47.

Roth, Philip.  1996.  Allegheny Oil: The Historic Petroleum Industry on the Allegheny National Forest.  Technical Report, Morgantown, W.Va.: Institute for the History of Technology & Industrial Archaeology, West Virginia University, in partnership with Allegheny National Forest.  96 pp.

Rottenberg, Dan.  2003.  In the Kingdom of Coal: An American Family and the Rock That Changed the World [two-family saga: coal baron and coal miner].  New York: Routledge.  320 pp.

Rubin, Mary H.  2003.  The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal [begun 1828; 180 miles Georgetown to Cumberland, Md.; vintage photographs collection].  Images of America.  Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia.  128 pp.

Rumley, Jim.  2001.  Cooleemee: The Life & Times of a Mill Town [textile workers, Davies Co., N.C.].  Cooleemee, N.C.: Cooleemee Historical Association.  434 pp.

Russ, Kurt C., John M. McDaniel, and Katherine T. Wood.  2000.  “Archaeology of Nineteenth-Century Iron Manufacturing in Southwestern Virginia: Longdale Iron Mining Complex.” In After the Backcountry: Rural Life in the Great Valley of Virginia, 1800-1900, ed. K. Koons and W. Hofstra, 135-144. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Sabin, Paul.  1999.  “‘A Dive Into Nature’s Great Grab-Bag’: Nature, Gender and Capitalism in the Early Pennsylvania Oil Industry” [1860s].  Pennsylvania History 66 (Autumn): 472-505.

Sale, Anna.  2006.  “Chasing the Answers to the Questions Sago Raised” [Sago, W.Va. mine disaster, Jan. 2, 2006].  Appalachian Heritage 34, no. 2 (Spring): 67-70.

Sallee, Shelley.  2004.  The Whiteness of Child Labor Reform in the New South [Ala., mill families, social order, early 1900s].  Athens: University of Georgia Press.  207 pp.

Salmond, John A.  1995.  Gastonia 1929: The Story of the Loray Mill Strike.  [Gastonia, N.C.].  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  240 pp.

Salmond, John A.  1998.  “‘The Burlington Dynamite Plot’: The 1934 Textile Strike and Its Aftermath in Burlington, North Carolina” [Alamance Co.].  North Carolina Historical Review 75 (October): 398-434.

Salmond, John A.  2002.  The General Textile Strike of 1934: From Maine to Alabama.  Columbia: University of Missouri Press.  295 pp.

Salmond, John A.  2004.  Southern Struggles: The Southern Labor Movement and the Civil Rights Struggle [textile strikes: 1929 Marion, N.C., 1934 Honea Path, S.C.; 1968 shootings, Orangeburg, S.C.].  New Perspectives on the History of the South.  Gainesville: University Press of Florida.  212 pp.

Salstrom, Paul, introd.  2000.  “Transforming the Appalachian Countryside: Railroads, Deforestation, and Social Change in West Virginia, 1810-1920: A Round Table.”  Summary by Ronald L. Lewis; Comments by Altina Waller; Comments by John Alexander Williams; “National Forests as the New Appalachian Commons,” by Chris Bolgiano; Response by Ronald L. Lewis.  West Virginia History 58 (1999-2000): 44-67.

Sarvis, Will.  1995.  “The Potts Valley Branch Railroad and Tri-State Incline Lumber Operation in West Virginia and Virginia, 1892-1932.”  West Virginia History 54: 42-58.

Sauceman, Fred.  2006.  “Sago” [one couple’s experience; Sago, W.Va. mine disaster, Jan. 2, 2006].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 22, no. 1 (Spring): 21-25.

Scarpaci, Joseph L., with Kevin J. Patrick, ed.  2006.  Pittsburgh and the Appalachians: Cultural and Natural Resources in a Postindustrial Age [deindustrialization in recent decades].  Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press.  264 pp.

Schaltenbrand, Phil.  1996.  Stoneware of Southwestern Pennsylvania.  Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.  216 pp.  Rev. ed. of: Old Pots: Salt-Glazed Stoneware of the Greensboro-New Geneva Region (Hanover, Pa.: Everybodys Press, 1977).

Scheberle, Denise.  2011.  “Refusing to Bow to King Coal: Tales of Our Energy Future and Mountaintop Removal in Appalachian Coal Country.”  Nature & Culture 6, no. 1 (March): 91-96. Review essay of three books: Coal River (2008), by Michael Shnayerson; Big Coal (2006), by Jeff Goodell: and Something’s Rising: Appalachians Fighting Mountaintop Removal (2009), by Silas House and Jason Howard.

Schmidt, James D.  2010.  Industrial Violence and the Legal Origins of Child Labor.  New York: Cambridge University Press.  279 pp.  “Drawing on archival case records from the Appalachian South between the 1880s and the 1920s.”

Schmidt, Ronald G., and William S. Hooks.  1994.  Whistle Over the Mountain: Timber, Track & Trails in the Tennessee Smokies.  Yellow Springs, Ohio: Graphicom Press, Inc.  170 pp.

Scholtz, Leigh Ann, and Laura Guertin.  2010.  “Using Tombstone Records from Centralia, PA, to Evaluate the Effects of Mining Activities on Male Survivorship” [tables; 1870-1999].  Pennsylvania Geographer 48, no. 1 (Spring/Summer): 3-15.  Gender comparisons.  Established 1866 and now a ghost town due to underground mine fire burning since 1962.

Schust, Alex P.  2005.  Gary Hollow: A History of the Largest Coal Mining Operation in the World [McDowell Co., W.Va.; 500 photographs; 1930s-50s; African Americans and immigrants; UMW; Norfolk and Western Railway Company].  Harwood, Md.: Two Mule Pub.  474 pp.  See also: U.S. Steel and Gary, West Virginia: Corporate Paternalism in Appalachia (2011), by Ronald Garay.

Schust, Alex P.  2010.  Billion Dollar Coalfield: West Virginia’s McDowell County and the Industrialization of America.  Harwood, Md.: Two Mule Publishing.  633 pp.  “...a record of the coal operators and the railroad that industrialized the county;” 1888-1988; Norfolk and Western Railway Company.  See the author’s two other McDowell County historical accounts, Gary Hollow (2005), and Coalwood (2006).

Schust, Alex P., and David R. Goad.  2006.  Coalwood: A History of the West Virginia Mining Communities of Coalwood, Caretta, and Six [McDowell Co.].  Harwood, Md.: Two Mule Publishing Co.  394 pp.

Schwartz-Barcott, T. P.  2008.  After the Disaster: Re-Creating Community and Well-Being at Buffalo Creek Since the Notorious Coal Mining Disaster in 1972 [Logan Co., W.Va., flash flood; 125 dead].  Amherst, N.Y.: Cambria Press.  517 pp.  Assesses conclusions reached in Kai Erikson’s classic study, Everything in Its Path: Destruction of Community in the Buffalo Creek Flood (1976).

Scott, Rebecca R.  2007.  “Dependent Masculinity and Political Culture in Pro-Mountaintop Removal Discourse: Or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Dragline” [Blair, W.Va.].  Feminist Studies 33, no. 3 (Fall): 484-509.  “This article examines the popular support for MTR: how do people learn to love the destruction of their environment?”

Scott, Rebecca R.  2010.  Removing Mountains: Extracting Nature and Identity in the Appalachian Coalfields.  Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.  271 pp.  Contents: Introduction: the logic of extraction -- Hillbillies and coal miners: representations of a national sacrifice zone -- Men moving mountains: coal mining masculinities and mountaintop removal -- The gendered politics of pro-mountaintop removal discourse -- ATVs in action: transgression, property rights, and tourism on the Hatfield-McCoy trail -- Coal heritage/coal history: Appalachia, America, and mountaintop removal -- Traces of history: “white” people, black coal -- Conclusion: coal facts.

Scott, Shaunna L.  1996.  “Dead Work: The Construction and Reconstruction of the Harlan Miners Memorial” [Harlan Co., Ky.].  Qualitative Sociology 19 (Fall): 365-393.

Scott, Shaunna L., Stephanie McSpirit, and Sharon Hardesty.  2012.  “Risky Business: Coal Waste Emergency Planning in West Virginia and Kentucky.”  Journal of Appalachian Studies 18, no. 1-2 (Spring-Fall): 149-175.  Tables.  Mingo and Wyoming Cos., W.Va., and Martin Co., Ky.

Scott, Shaunna L., Stephanie McSpirit, Patrick Breheny, and Britteny M. Howell.  2012.  “The Long-Term Effects of a Coal Waste Disaster on Social Trust in Appalachian Kentucky.” Organization & Environment 25, no. 4 (December): 402-418.  Coal sludge impoundment rupture, October 2000, Martin County, Ky.

Scott, Shaunna L., Stephanie McSpirit, Sharon Hardesty, and Robert Welch.  2005.  “Post Disaster Interviews with Martin County Citizens: ‘Gray Clouds’ of Blame and Distrust” [Ky.; Oct. 2000 coal waste flood].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 11, no. 1-2 (Spring-Fall): 7-29.

Scott, Shaunna.  1996.  Review essay of The Court-Martial of Mother Jones, ed. Edward M. Steel (University Press of Kentucky, 1995).  Appalachian Journal 24 (Fall): 93-97.

Scott, Thomas A.  2001.  “Winning World War II in an Atlanta Suburb: Local Boosters and the Recruitment of Bell Bomber” [Marietta, Ga.; Cobb Co.].  In The Second Wave: Southern Industrialization from the 1940s to the 1970s, ed. P. Scranton, 1-23.  Athens: University of Georgia Press.

Scotts Run.  1994.  West Virginia History 53: 1-117.  Special issue, with an introduction by Ronald  L. Lewis.

Seager, David R.  2001.  “Barre, Vermont Granite Workers and the Struggle Against Silicosis, 1890-1960” [references W.Va.’s silicosis disaster, 1930-36, Hawks Nest Tunnel, Gauley Bridge].  Labor History 42 (February): 61-79.

Sergent, James.  2009.  “There’s Coal in the Hills of Harlan County” [Benham, Ky.; longwall mining explained; hazards].  Interview by Foxfire students.  Foxfire Magazine 43, no. 1-2 (Spring/Summer): 3-10.

Shapiro, Henry D.  2008.  “Industrialization in Appalachia.”  In The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture, Vol. 11: Agriculture and Industry, 256-259.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Shapiro, Karin A.  1998.  A New South Rebellion: The Battle against Convict Labor in the Tennessee Coalfields, 1871-1896.  Fred W. Morrison Series in Southern Studies.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  333 pp.

Shapiro, Tricia.  2010.  Mountain Justice: Homegrown Resistance to Mountaintop Removal, for the Future of Us All.  Oakland, Calif.: AK Press.  371 pp.  Contents: Flyover -- Mountain People -- A New Movement -- West Virginia -- Tennessee -- Beyond Mountain Justice Summer -- Climate Ground Zero.

Shifflett, Crandall A.  [1991] 1995.  Coal Towns: Life, Work and Culture in Company Towns of Southern Appalachia, 1880-1960.  Reprint.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.  280 pp.

Shnayerson, Michael.  2007.  “The Rape of Appalachia” [Coal River Valley, W.Va.].  In The Best American Science and Nature Writing 2007, ed. R. Preston, 228-248.  Boston: Houghton Mifflin.  First published in Vanity Fair, May 2006.

Shnayerson, Michael.  2008.  Coal River.  New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.  321 pp.  Southern W.Va. mountaintop removal mining; grassroots Coal River Mountain Watch v. Massey Energy’s CEO, Don Blankenship.

Shogan, Robert.  2004.  The Battle of Blair Mountain: The Story of America’s Largest Labor Uprising [1921, W.Va. mine wars].  Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.  304 pp.

Silverman, Sharon Hernes.  1998.  “A Blast from the Past: Cornwall Iron Furnace” [18th-century National Historic Landmark; Lebanon Co., Pa.].  Pennsylvania Heritage 24 (Spring): 20-31.

Silverman, Sherman E.  2000.  “Brownsville, PA., and Brockport, NY: A Contrast in Town Development as Influenced by Transportation” [19th century; Monongahela Valley, Pa.; Erie Canal, N.Y.].  Pennsylvania Geographer 38 (Spring/Summer): 57-93.

Silverman, Sherman E.  2000.  “The Persistence of Mount Savage, Maryland: An Historical Geography” [coal and railroad town].  In A Geographic Perspective of Pittsburgh and the Alleghenies: From Precambrian to Post-Industrial, ed. K. Patrick and J. Scarpaci, 10-16.  Washington, D.C.: Association of American Geographers.

Simon, Bryant.  1998.  A Fabric of Defeat: The Politics of South Carolina Millhands, 1910-1948. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  345 pp.

Simon, Bryant.  1998.  A Fabric of Defeat: The Politics of South Carolina Millhands, 1910-1948.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  345 pp.

Simson, William.  2001.  Parades Amid the Standoff in the Old Red Scar: Interpreting Film Images of Striking Industrial Operatives in the East Tennessee Copper Basin, 1939-1940” [Ducktown].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 7 (Fall): 227-255.

Simson, William.  2011.  “Munitions and Victory Gardens from the Old Red Scar: Managing the Chemicals Industry in the Ducktown Copper Basin during World War II.”  Journal Of East Tennessee History 83: 56-71.

Singer, Alan J.  1996.  “‘Something of a Man’: John L. Lewis, the UMWA, and the CIO, 1919-1943.”  In The United Mine Workers of America: A Model of Industrial Solidarity?, ed. J. Laslett, 104-150.  University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Six, Dean.  2012.  West Virginia Glass Towns [early 1800’s to present].  Charleston, W.Va.: Quarrier Press.  230 pp.  Alphabetical list of 57 towns identifying 450 hot glass manufacturers in those communities, documenting dates of operation and products they made, plus photos and blueprint maps.

Skidmore, Hubert.  [1941] 2004.  Hawk’s Nest: A Novel [1930 silicosis industrial disaster at Gauley Bridge, W.Va.].  Reprint.  Appalachian Echoes.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.  350 pp.  Original run of several hundred copies published, New York: Doubleday, Doran & Co., before ceasing at request of Union Carbide.

Slavin, Peter.  2011.  “Goin’ to the Mountain: Inside Activists’ Five-Day, 50-Mile March to Protect a West Virginia Mountain from Strip Mining” [Blair Mountain].  In These Times, 28 June.  2,565 words.  http://www.inthesetimes.com/article/11571/goin_to_the_mountain/.

Slavishak, Edward Steven.  2008.  Bodies of Work: Civic Display and Labor in Industrial Pittsburgh.  Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.  354 pp.  Contents: The magic of the nineteenth century: industrial change and work in Pittsburgh -- Working-class muscle in the Battle of Homestead -- The working body as a civic image -- The Pittsburgh Survey [1907-08] and the body as evidence -- “Delicately built”: the “problem” of working women in Pittsburgh -- Hiding and displaying the broken body -- Epilogue: “That’s work, and that’s what people like to watch!”

Sleight-Brennan, Sandra.  2002.  “Appalachia’s Vanishing Mountains” [mountaintop removal overview].  Contemporary Review 281 (October): 232-235.

Smith, Barbara.  1998.  “A ‘Dam’ Good Worker: Dam Builder Ralph Poling” [Tygart Dam, 1934-1938; Grafton, W.Va.].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 24 (Winter): 37-43.

Smith, Barbara.  1998.  “Glory Days for Grafton: Building the Tygart Dam” [Tygart River; 1934-1938].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 24 (Winter): 32-36.

Smith, Barbara.  1999.  “‘I Know Them All’: Monongah’s Faithful Father Briggs” [91-year-old patron of fallen miners at site of nation’s worst mine disaster in 1907].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 25 (Winter): 21-24.

Smith, Kenneth L.  [1986] 2006.  Sawmill: The Story of Cutting the Last Great Virgin Forest East of the Rockies [Ouachita Mountains].  Reprint.  Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press.  260 pp.

Smith, Robert Michael.  2003.  From Blackjacks to Briefcases: A History of Commercialized Strikebreaking and Unionbusting in the United States.  Athens: Ohio University Press.  179 pp.

Sninsky, Ed.  2009.  “Student Steelworker: Every Job in the Homestead Plant.”  Western Pennsylvania History 92, no. 3 (Fall): 44-57.  Describes many jobs he held at the Homestead Steel Works in the early 1950s as the author worked his way through college.

Snyder, Joseph.  2012.  Baltimore and Ohio: The Passenger Trains and Services of America’s First Common-Carrier Railroad, 1827-1971.  Shepherdstown, W.Va.: Juniper House.  250 pp.  Well-researched, engaging history divided into ten eras; lushly illustrated with photos, dramatic painted scenes and drawings, timetables, menus, advertisements, and more.

Soderlund, Jean R., and Catherine S. Parzynski, ed.  2008.  Backcountry Crucibles: The Lehigh Valley from Settlement to Steel [Pa.; 14 papers].  Bethlehem, Pa.: Lehigh University Press.  349 pp.

Solomon, Brian.  2008.  Railroads of Pennsylvania: Your Guide to Pennsylvania’s Historic Trains and Railway Sites.  St. Paul, Minn.: Voyageur Press.  160 pp.  Pt. 1: Anthracite Country; Pt. 3: Through the Mountains; map; color photos.

Southern Railway (U.S.).  [1917] 1995.  The Floods of July 1916: How the Southern Railway Organization Met an Emergency [N.C., S.C.; photos].  Reprint.  Johnson City, Tenn.: Overmountain Press.  131 pp.

Spadaro, Jack.  2005.  “Mountaintop Removal and the Destruction of Appalachia” [speech at the 2005 Appalachian Studies Association annual meeting by former head of National Mine Health and Safety Academy].  Appalachian Heritage 33, no. 2 (Spring): 37-40.

Spadaro, Jack.  2007.  “Interview with Jack Spadaro: On Being a Whistleblower for Mine Safety and Health” [2003 demotion; Martin Co., Ky., slurry spill cover-up].  Interview by Annie Bryant, Phil Jamison, Carl Jenkins, Susan Pepper, and Leila Weinstein, with Patricia D. Beaver.  Appalachian Journal 34, no. 3-4 (Spring/Summer): 326-350.

Spangler, Patricia.  2008.  The Hawks Nest Tunnel: An Unabridged History.  Proctorville, Oh.: Wythe-North Publishing.  264 pp.  Union Carbide Corporation; 1936; Gauley Mountain, W.Va.; Congressional investigation; interviews; media coverage; hundreds of African American worker deaths from silicosis.

Stahl, Ray, and Ned L. Irwin.  2012.  The Last Empire Builder: A Life of George L. Carter, 1857-1936.  Johnson City: East Tennessee State University.  240 pp.  “Carter created three ‘empires’--in iron, railroads, and coal....weaving...the southern Appalachian region into the fabric of the American nation.”  Carter constructed the Carolina, Clinchfield & Ohio Railway, engineered the first deep mine shafts in W.Va., and was at one time the owner of the largest private coal company in America, the Carter Coal Company.

Standiford, Les.  2005.  Meet You in Hell: Andrew Carnegie, Henry Clay Frick, and the Bitter Partnership that Transformed America [steel industry; Homestead Strike, 1892; Pinkerton detectives].  New York: Crown Publishers.  319 pp.

Stankowski, Edward F.  2004.  Memory of Steel [biography: Pittsburgh, 1980s steel industry collapse].  Lima, Ohio: Wyndham Hall Press.  122 pp.

Starnes, Richard D.  2003.  “‘A Conspicuous Example of What is Termed the New South’: Tourism and Urban Development in Asheville, North Carolina, 1880-1925.”  North Carolina Historical Review 80 (January): 52-80.

Starnes, Richard D.  2003.  “Creating a ‘Variety Vacationland’: Tourism Development in North Carolina.”  In Southern Journeys: Tourism, History, and Culture in the Modern South, ed. R. Starnes, 138-153.  Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.

Stealey, John E., III.  2003.  “An Overview of the Antebellum Great Kanawha Salt Industry” [W.Va.].  In Great Kanawha Valley Chemical Heritage, Symposium Proceedings, May 3, 2003, Institute, West Virginia, comp. Lee R. Maddex, 1-13.  Morgantown, W.Va.: Institute for the History of Technology and Industrial Archaeology.

Stealey, John Edmund, III, ed.  2000.  Kanawhan Prelude to Nineteenth-Century Monopoly in the United States: The Virginia Salt Combinations [history of salt industry in Va. (W.Va.); reprints 19 documents of incorporation, 1817-1851].  Richmond: Virginia Historical Society.  133 pp.

Stealey, John Edmund, III.  1999.  “Kanawhan Prelude to Nineteenth-Century Monopoly in the United States: The Virginia Salt Combinations” [history of salt industry; 1808-1860s; Va. (W.Va.)].  Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 107 (no. 4): 349-477.

Steel, Edward M., ed.  1995.  The Court-Martial of Mother Jones.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.  319 pp.

Steele, John Washington.  [1902] 2006.  Coal Oil Johnny: Story of His Career As Told by Himself [1843-1921].  Chicora, Pa.: Mechling Bookbindery.  211 pp.  Originally self published: Franklin, Pa.  Steele (“Coal Oil Johnny”) made and lost an oil fortune along 1860s Oil Creek, Venango Co. Pa, and lost it in Philadelphia.

Stepenoff, Bonnie.  1997.  “Keeping It in the Family: Mother Jones and the Pennsylvania Silk Strike of 1900-1901” [Klots silk mill; Carbondale, Pa.].  Labor History 38 (Fall): 432-449.

Stepenoff, Bonnie.  1999.  Their Father’s Daughters: Silk Mill Workers in Northeastern Pennsylvania, 1880-1960.  Selinsgrove, Pa.: Susquehanna University Press.  199 pp.

Sterba, Christopher M.  1996.  “Family, Work, and Nation: Hazelton, Pennsylvania, and the 1934 General Strike in Textiles.”  Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 120 (January/April): 3-35.

Stern, Gerald M.  2008.  The Scotia Widows: Inside Their Lawsuit against Big Daddy Coal.  New York: Random House.  145 pp.  Blue Diamond Coal Company, Letcher County, Ky.  The  March 9, 1976 explosion killed 15 miners, and two days later a second explosion killed 11 rescue workers.

Stewart, Bonnie E.  2011.  No. 9: The 1968 Farmington Mine Disaster [W.Va.].  Morgantown: West Virginia University Press.  288 pp.  78 miners died in Consolidation Coal Company’s No. 9 Mine explosion, November 20, 1968 at Farmington.  “Based on public records and interviews...No.9 describes the conditions underground before and after the disaster and the legal struggles of the miners’ widows to gain justice and transform coal mine safety legislation.”

Sticklen, Shainna.  2007.  “Coal Mining: A Family Business in West Virginia.”  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 23, no. 1 (Spring/Summer): 9-11.

Stoker, Louise Dawson, and Dana Stoker Cochran.  2005.  Bramwell: A Town of Millionaires [W.Va.; 19th-century coal boom; photo-retrospective].  Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia.  128 pp.

Stolarik, M. Mark.  1997.  “Slovak-Americans in the Great Steel Strike” [1919; Pa.].  Pennsylvania History 64 (Summer): 407-418.

Stomberg, Joseph.  2006.  “Appalachian Coal Region.”  In The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture, Vol. 8: Environment, ed. M. Melosi, 181-184.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Stover, R. Brooks.  2010.  The Elk River Coal & Lumber Company: The History of the Company, Its Railroads and Its Towns with Accounts by the People Who Lived It [Clay Co., W.Va.].  [No location]: R.B. Stover.  216 pp.

Strickland, JL.  2012.  “A Natural-Born Linthead.”  Southern Cultures 18, no. 4 (Winter): 96-106.  Growing up in a cotton textile mill town in “the Valley” (Alabama’s Chattahoochee River Valley) where her parents had migrated from backwoods Randolph County.

Striffler, Steve.  2009.  “Tyson Foods, Holly Farms, and the Rise of Big Chicken” [Wilkesboro, N.C.].  Chap. 6 in Migration and the Transformation of the Southern Workplace Since 1945, ed. R. Cassanello and C. Davis, 145-173.  Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

Striking a Balance: Conserving & Developing Appalachia’s Natural Resources.  2001. Special issue, Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 18 (Winter): 1-44.

Sturr, Chris, and Amy Offner.  2003.  “Flattening Appalachia” [criticizes mining techniques].  Dollars & Sense no. 248 (July/August): 10-11.

Suggs, George G., Jr.  2002.  “My World Is Gone”: Memories of Life in a Southern Cotton Mill World [Bladenboro, N.C.].  Detroit, Mich.: Wayne State University Press.  188 pp.

Swain, George T.  [1927] 2009.  The Blair Mountain War: Battle of the Rednecks, “No armed mob will cross Logan County.”  Chapmanville, W.Va: Woodland Press.  70 pp.  Originally published in Logan, W.Va.; reprinted from the author’s The History of Logan County (b. 1887).

Swartz, Gordon Lloyd, III.  1998.  “Locomotive Engineer Gilbert King: ‘I Like Railroading’” [W.Va.; B&O rail line; 1940s-50s].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 24 (Summer): 34-41.

Swope, Christopher.  2006.  “The Battles of Blair Mountain.”  Preservation 58, no. 3: 34-39.  Logan Co., W.Va.; anti-strip mining initiative; National Historic Landmark nomination, 2002.

Tabb, Rick, and Josephine Dellinger.  2012.  Clifton Forge [Va.; photo retrospective].  Published on behalf of the C&O Historical Society and the Clifton Forge Woman’s Club.  Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia.  127 pp.  “It was a strategic location on the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad, which developed a large railroad yard and locomotive and repair shops....a classic railroad boomtown...until the shops closed in the late 1980s.”

Taft, Michael.  2004.  “George Korson: Pioneer Collector of Industrial Folklore” [1927-1967: Pa. coal miners; field recordings].  Folklife Center News (Library of Congress) 26, no. 1 (Winter): 6-8.  http://www.loc.gov/folklife/news/news-text-winter2004.html.

Tams, W. P., Jr.  [1963, 1983] 2001.  The Smokeless Coal Fields of West Virginia: A Brief History.  Reprint, with a new introduction by Ronald D. Eller.  Morgantown: West Virginia University Press.  120 pp.

Tanner, Borgon.  2010.  “Into the Woods with Ely-Thomas: One Day’s Drama at Jetsville.”  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 36, no. 1 (Spring): 40-49.  Lumber and track crews repair railroad bridges and roads after a 1954 flash flood; Greenbrier and Nicholas Counties.

Tanner, Borgon.  2011.  “Wetzel & Tyler Railway” [trolley].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 37, no. 2 (Summer): 10-15.  Rural electric streetcar line connecting the Ohio River towns of New Martinsville, Paden City, and Sistersville, 1903-1925.

Tarr, Joel A., ed.  2003.  Devastation and Renewal: An Environmental History of Pittsburgh and Its Region [8 contributors; steel and coal pollution; reclamation].  Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press.  281 pp.

Tate, Curtis.  2012.  “Tunnel Trouble: Building and Rebuilding the Cincinnati Southern, 1869-1999.”  Ohio Valley History 12, no. 3 (Fall): 68-77.  Cincinnati to Chattanooga, 338 miles, 105 bridges, 27 tunnels.

Tedesco, Marie.  2006.  “Claiming Public Space, Asserting Class Identity, and Displaying Patriotism: The 1929 Rayon Workers’ Strike Parades in Elizabethton, Tennessee” [American Bemberg and American Glanzstoff plants].  Journal of Appalachian Studies 12, no. 2 (Fall): 55-87.

Teter, Betsy Wakefield, ed.  2002.  Textile Town: Spartanburg County, South Carolina [history, 1816 to present].  Spartanburg, S.C.: Hub City Writers Project.  346 pp.

Thesing, William B.  2000.  “General Bibliography on Coal Mining in Art, Literature, and Film.”  In Caverns of Night: Coal Mines in Art, Literature, and Film, ed. W. Thesing, 267-270.  Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.

Thesing, William B., ed.  2000.  Caverns of Night: Coal Mines in Art, Literature, and Film.  Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.  281 pp.

Thornton, Tim.  2006.  “Young and Eager, Activists Aim for a Clearer Focus” [Va.; Mountain Justice Summer; anti-mountaintop removal].  Roanoke Times, 3 July, A5.  Reprinted in Appalachian Journal 34, no. 2 (Winter 2007): 153-156, titled “We Knew the Sixties Would Come Back!”

Toker, Franklin. 2009.  “The River Towns: Valleys of Industry” [Monongahela, Ohio, and Allegheny Rivers].  Chap. 8 in Pittsburgh: A New Portrait, by F. Toker, 382-441.  Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press.  Book based on a previous work by the author, Pittsburgh: An Urban Portrait, originally published by Penn State Press (1986) and reprinted by University of Pittsburgh Press (1989).

Transportation in Appalachia: Articles, Essays, Poetry, and Reviews.  1998.  Special issue, Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 15 (Winter): 1-40.

Treese, Lorett.  [2003] 2012.  Railroads of Pennsylvania.  2nd ed.  Mechanicsburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books.  344 pp.

Trifonoff, Karen M.  2000.  “The Mine Fire in Centralia, Pennsylvania” [historical geography; 38-year-old underground mine fire; Columbia Co.].  Pennsylvania Geographer 38 (Fall/Winter): 3-24.

Tropea, Joseph L.  2008.  “Revisiting Monongah.”  Appalachian Journal 35, no. 4 (Summer): 358-364.  Review essay of Davitt McAteer’s Monongah: The Tragic Story of the 1907 Monongah Mine Disaster, the Worst Industrial Accident in US History (West Virginia University Press, 2007).

Turcott, Jean Whitford.  2000.  “‘The Vortex of Party Strife’: The Funding Debate and Construction of the New York and Erie Railroad, 1832-1851” [N.Y.’s southern tier Appalachian counties].  In Canal History and Technology Proceedings 19: 91-125.  Easton, Pa.: Canal History and Technology Press.

U.S. Coal Mine Safety and Health Administration.  2004.  Report of Investigation: Underground Coal Mine Nonfatal Entrapment, July 24, 2002: Quecreek #1 Mine, ID no. 36-08746, Black Wolf Coal Company, Inc., Quecreek, Somerset County, Pennsylvania.  By accident investigators Edwin P. Brady, et al.  Arlington, Va.: Mine Safety and Health Administration.  133 pp.  http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS34985.

Uchimura, Kazuko.  2010.  “Coal Operators and Market Competition: The Case of West Virginia’s Smokeless Coalfields and the Fairmont Field, 1853-1933.”  West Virginia History: A Journal of Regional Studies, new series, vol. 4, no. 2 (Fall): 59-86.  Competing with northern rivals in coalfields of Pa., Oh., Ill., and Ind.

United States Government Accountability Office.  2009.  Surface Coal Mining: Characteristics of Mining in Mountainous Areas of Kentucky and West Virginia: Report to Congressional Requesters.  Washington, D.C.: GPO.  82 pp.  http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS119902.

United States.  2010.  Surface Coal Mining Financial Assurances for, and Long-Term Oversight of, Mines with Valley Fills in Four Appalachian States: Report to Congressional Requesters [W.Va., Tenn., Va., Ky.].  Rev. ed.  Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Accountability Office.  63 pp.  http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS121933.

United States. Congress.  2006.  Sago Mine Disaster and an Overview of Mine Safety: Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, United States Senate [W.Va.; 12 deaths].  109th  Cong., 2nd sess., 23 January.  (S. hrg.; 109-534).  Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.  83 pp.

United States.  EPA (Environmental Protection Agency).  2011.  The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian Coalfields.  Washington, D.C.: Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment.  EPA/600/R-10/023F.  153 pp.  http://www.epa.gov/ncea/.  “Our conclusions, based on evidence from the peer-reviewed literature, and from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement released in 2005, are that MTM-VF lead directly to five principal alterations of stream ecosystems: (1) springs, and ephemeral, intermittent, and small perennial streams are permanently lost with the removal of the mountain and from burial under fill, (2) concentrations of major chemical ions are persistently elevated downstream, (3) degraded water quality reaches levels that are acutely lethal to standard laboratory test organisms, (4) selenium concentrations are elevated, reaching concentrations that have caused toxic effects in fish and birds and (5) macroinvertebrate and fish communities are consistently degraded.”  http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/risk/recordisplay.cfm?deid=225743.

United States.  EPA (Environmental Protection Agency).  2011.  A Field-Based Aquatic Life Benchmark for Conductivity in Central Appalachian Streams.  Washington, D.C.: Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment.  EPA/600/R-10/023F.  275 pp.  http://www.epa.gov/ncea/.  “The impetus for the benchmark is the observation that high conductivities [salt mixture] in streams below surface coal mining operations, especially mountaintop mining and valley fills, are associated with impairment of aquatic life.”  http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=233809.

United States.  Government Accountability Office.  2009.  “Surface Coal Mining Characteristics of Mining in Mountainous Areas of Kentucky and West Virginia: Report to Congressional Requesters.”  Washington: U.S. Govt. Accountability Office.  82 pp.  (GovDoc: GA 1.13:GAO-10-21.)  Highlights: http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-10-21.  Full report:  http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS119902.

United States.  Government Accountability Office.  2010.  “Surface Coal Mining: Financial Assurances for, and Long-Term Oversight of, Mines with Valley Fills in Four Appalachian States: Report to Congressional Requesters.”  Washington: U.S. Govt. Accountability Office.  63 pp.  (GovDoc: GA 1.13:GAO-10-206.)  Highlights: http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-10-206.  Full report: http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS121933.

Updike, William D.  2003.  “The Red Sand Site (46Ka354): Archaeological and Historical Investigations of a Nineteenth-Century Kanawha Valley Saltworks” [W.Va.].  In Great Kanawha Valley Chemical Heritage, Symposium Proceedings, May 3, 2003, Institute, West Virginia, comp. Lee R. Maddex, 15-30.  Morgantown, W.Va.: Institute for the History of Technology and Industrial Archaeology.

Urbina, Ian, and Jo Craven McGinty.  2011.  “Learning Too Late of Perils in Gas Well Leases” [Marcellus Shale; Dimock, Pa.].  With research contributed by Jeremy Ashkenas and Kitty Bennett.  New York Times, 2 December, 1(A), Drilling Down series.  2,522 words.  Sidebar links to: previous articles in this series; 111,000 oil and gas leases from Tex., N.Y., Oh., Pa., W.Va.; “A Layman’s Guide to Lease Terms”; and Readers’ Comments.  “Energy company officials say that standard leases include language that protects landowners. But a review of more than 111,000 leases, addenda and related documents by The New York Times suggests otherwise.”  http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/02/us/drilling-down-fighting-over-oil-and-gas-well-leases.html?_r=1&nl=todaysheadlines&emc=tha2.

Urbina, Ian.  2011.  “Drilling Down” (series).  New York Times.  Investigative series on hydraulic fracturing (“hydrofracking”) drilling for natural gas, detailing the environmental effects of dumping contaminated water, with a focus on Pennsylvania.

Urbina, Ian.  2011.  “Gas Wells Recycle Water, but Toxic Risks Persist” [Pa.].  New York Times, 2 March, 1(A), Drilling Down series.  2234 words.  Sidebar (interactive graphic): “Chemicals and Toxic Materials That Come With Hydrofracking.”  Sidebar: “Documents: Politics, Recycling and Tracking of Natural Gas Waste,” includes annotated copies of six of the most significant of 3,000 state and federal documents obtained through open record requests, with links to 1,000 of them.  http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/02/us/02gas.html?_r=1.

Urbina, Ian.  2011.  “Regulation Lax as Gas Wells’ Tainted Water Hits Rivers” [Pa.].  New York Times, 27 February, 1(A), Drilling Down series.  4086 words.  Articles in this series will examine the risks of natural-gas “hydrofracking” of the Marcellus Shale and efforts to regulate this rapidly growing industry.  http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/27/us/27gas.html.

Utility’s Appalachian Connection Clears Environmental Hurdle [environmentally controversial $287-million electric transmission line to extend 90 miles between W.Va. and Va. and cross the Jefferson National Forest and Appalachian Trail].  2003.  ENR: Engineering News-Record, 13 January, 18.

Vance, Warren.  2004.  “Close Call at Altman” [1947 Boone Co.; collision course train flagged down].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 30 (Fall): 30-31.

Varano, Charles S.  1999.  Forced Choices: Class, Community, and Worker Ownership [Weirton Steel Corp., Weirton, W.Va.].  SUNY Series in the Sociology of Work and Organizations.  Albany: State University of New York Press.  396 pp.

Varat, Daniel R.  2007.  “A Successful Strike: ‘The Entire Community Is With the Employees’” [1924 walkout; Champion Fibre Company (paper mill), Haywood Co., N.C.].  Appalachian Journal 35, no. 1-2 (Fall 2007/Winter 2008): 28-52.

Vick, Alison.  2012.  “‘We Are a Distinct and Peculiar People’: Oliver Perry Temple and the Knoxville Industrial Association Address of 1869.”  Journal Of East Tennessee History 84: 87-100.

Victory Through Chemistry.  2012.  Special Report, Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 38, no. 1 (Spring): 23-31.  “‘Just Get It Done’: Synthetic Rubber in Institute”; “The Union Carbide Story: Franklin Jividen Recalled”; and “The U.S. Rubber Story: Frank Sayre Recalls,” by Warren Woomer; plus sidebar, “Synthetic Rubber: How It’s Made,” by Ed Hile.

Vollers, Maryanne.  1999.  “Razing Appalachia” [W.Va.; mountaintop removal].  Mother Jones 24 (July/August): 36-43, 86-87.  http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/1999/07/mountaintop.html.

Waite, John R.  2003.  The Blue Ridge Stemwinder: An Illustrated History of the East Tennessee & Western North Carolina Railroad and the Linville River Railway [1760-2000; “Tweetsie”].  Design and cartography by Chris H. Ford.  Johnson City, Tenn.: Overmountain Press.  386 pp.

Waite, John R.  2003.  The Blue Ridge Stemwinder: An Illustrated History of the East Tennessee and Western North Carolina Railroad and the Linville River Railway.  Johnson City, Tenn.: Overmountain Press.  387 pp.

Walcott, Susan M.  2011.  “The Furniture Foothills and the Spatial Fix Globalization in the Furniture Industry” [N.C. Piedmont; recession].  Southeastern Geographer 51, no. 1 (Spring): 6-30.

Waldrep, G. C., III.  2000.  Southern Workers and the Search for Community: Spartanburg, South Carolina [textile mill villages; 1930s labor activism].  The Working Class in American History series.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press.  272 pp.  http://www.press.uillinois.edu/epub/books/waldrep/toc.html.

Walker, Melissa, and James C. Cobb, ed.  2008.  Agriculture and Industry, Vol. 11 of The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  354 pp.  Agriculture: 63 essays; Industry: 50 essays.

Walker, Mike.  2004.  SPV’s Comprehensive Railroad Atlas of North America: Appalachia & Piedmont [106 maps: Ky., W.Va., Va., Tenn., N.C.].  Canterbury, Kent, England: Stuart Andrews.  100 pp.

Wallace, Anthony F. C.  2004.  “The Perception of Risk in Nineteenth-Century Anthracite Mining Operations.”  In Modernity & Mind: Essays on Culture Change, vol. 2, ed. Robert Steven Grumet, 201-211.  Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Waples, David A.  2005.  The Natural Gas Industry in Appalachia: A History from the First Discovery to the Maturity of the Industry.  Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland.  276 pp.

Ward, Ken, Jr.  1999.  “Mining the Mountains” [mountaintop removal].  Southern Exposure 27 (Fall): 45-49.  Reprinted from the Charleston Gazette, W.Va.

Ward, Ken, Jr.  2001.  “Mountaintop Removal: Federal Strip Mining Law Ignored” [W.Va.].  IRE Journal 24 (July/August): 12-13, 30.

Ward, Ken, Jr.  2009.  Coal Tattoo [blog], Charleston Gazette [W.Va.]. http://blogs.wvgazette.com/coaltattoo/.  Taking its name from the Billy Ed Wheeler song, Coal Tattoo “attempts to build on the newspaper’s longtime coverage of all things coal — with a focus on mountaintop removal, coal-mine safety and climate change.”

Ward, Ken, Jr.  2012.  “Coal Pornography: What Is This Really All About?”  Coal Tattoo (blog).  Charleston Gazette, 6 June.  2,006 words.  West Virginian Maria Gunnoe’s hearing testimony before a Congressional subcommittee about the effects of mountaintop removal included a coal-polluted-water bathtub photo of a little girl; she was detained afterwards by Capitol police, at Republican committee members’ urging, on suspicion of child pornography.  http://blogs.wvgazette.com/coaltattoo/2012/06/06/coal-pornography-what-is-this-all-really-about/.

Ward, Ken, Jr.  2012.  “Slurry Safety: Learning from the CONSOL Collapse.”  Coal Tattoo (blog).  Charleston Gazette, 6 December.  1,593 words.  “It’s been nearly a week since the terrible collapse of a ‘saddle dike’ at CONSOL Energy’s Robinson Run complex in Harrison County, W.Va.  Crews are still looking for the body of a United Mine Workers dozer operator who was killed when he and his machine were dumped into the operation’s huge Nolan Run slurry impoundment.” http://blogs.wvgazette.com/coaltattoo/2012/12/06/slurry-safety-learning-from-the-consol-collapse/.

Ward, Ken.  2006.  “Beyond Sago; Coal Mine Safety in America, One by One Disasters Make Headlines, but Most Miners Killed on the Job Die Alone; Poor Safety Checks, Ignored Plans at Fault” [series of special reports on coal mine safety after a deadly year].  Charleston Gazette (W.Va.) 5 November, 1(E), 4066 words.

Warren, Kenneth.  2001.  Big Steel: The First Century of the United States Steel Corporation, 1901-2001 [Pa.].  Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.  405 pp.

Warren, Kenneth.  2001.  Wealth, Waste, and Alienation: Growth and Decline in the Connellsville Coke Industry [Pa.].  Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.  297 pp.

Warren, Kenneth.  2008.  Bethlehem Steel: Builder and Arsenal of America.  Pittsburgh, Pa: University of Pittsburgh Press.  322 pp.  Rise and demise; 1850s to 2001.

Warrick, Joby.  2007.  “Into the Darkness - Deep in the dangerous mines of West Virginia, thousands willingly risk their lives -- for coal, a good paycheck and each other”].  Washington Post, 21 January, W10 (Magazine).  7466 words.  (Correction: Magazine article incorrectly said that 350 rail cars could carry 4 million tons of coal. It would take about 40,000 typical cars, or 350 to 400 typical coal trains, to carry that amount).

Welcome to Elkridge, Fayette County, WV.  2005. [web page; community scrapbook; coal camp; local history, photographs, sound clips; subpages: Coal Mining; Community; Depression; Grow Up; History; Memorial Day; Memories; World War].  http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~elkridge/index.htm.

Wesolowsky, Tony.  1995.  “A Jewel in the Crown of Old King Coal: Eckley Miners’ Village.”  Pennsylvania Heritage 22 (Winter): 30-37.

West Virginia.  2011.  Upper Big Branch: The April 5, 2010, Explosion: A Failure of Basic Coal Mine Safety Practices [Whitesville, W.Va.].  Shepherdstown, W.Va.: Governor’s Independent Investigation Panel [J. Davitt McAteer, Katie Beall, James A. Beck, Jr., Patrick C. McGinley, Celeste Monforton, Deborah C. Roberts, Beth Spence, and Suzanne Weise].  126 pp.  Report posted online by Robert C. Byrd National Technology Transfer Center, Wheeling Jesuit College, Wheeling, W.Va.  http://www.nttc.edu/ubb/.

Whalen, Robert W.  1998.  “Recollecting the Cotton Mill Wars: Proletarian Literature of the 1929-1931 Southern Textile Strikes.”  North Carolina Historical Review 75 (October): 370-397.

Whalen, Robert Weldon.  2001.  “Like Fire in Broom Straw”: Southern Journalism and the Textile Strikes of 1929-31.  Contributions in American History, no. 191.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood.  125 pp.

Whisnant, Ann Mitchell.  2003.  “Public and Private Tourism Development in 1930s Appalachia: The Blue Ridge Parkway Meets Little Switzerland.”  In Southern Journeys: Tourism, History, and Culture in the Modern South, ed. R. Starnes, 88-113.  Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.

Wilber, Tom.  2012.  Under the Surface: Fracking, Fortunes and the Fate of the Marcellus Shale [N.Y., Pa.].  Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.  272 pp.  “...the first book-length journalistic overview of shale gas development and the controversies surrounding it....Control over drilling rights is at stake.”

Williamson, J. W.  2003.  “The Dangerous Mother Jones.”  Appalachian Journal 30 (Winter-Spring): 214-225.  Review essay of Mother Jones: The Most Dangerous Woman in America, by Elliott J. Gorn (New York: Hill and Wang, 2001).

Wilson, Kathleen Curtis.  1995.  “Fabric and Fiction: The Clinch Valley Blanket Mills, 1890-1950.”  In Appalachia and the Politics of Culture, ed. E. C. Fine.  Journal of the Appalachian Studies Association 7: 50-56.  Johnson City: East Tennessee State University, Center for Appalachian Studies and Services.

Wilson, Shannon H.  1998.  “A Little Journey Into Harlan County: William J. Hutchins and the Harlan County Troubles, 1932" [excerpts of Berea College president’s impressions of Harlan Co., Ky., during coal strike]. Appalachian Heritage 26 (Spring): 7-12.

Wingerd, Mary Lethert.  1996.  “Rethinking Paternalism: Power and Parochialism in a Southern Mill Village” [Cooleemee, N.C.].  Journal of American History 83 (December): 872-902.

Wishart, Ryan.  2012.  “Coal River’s Last Mountain: King Coal’s ‘Après moi le déluge’ Reign.” Organization & Environment 25, no. 4 (December): 470-485.  Failed proposal to substitute wind energy for mountaintop removal coal mining; Coal River Valley, W.Va.

Withers, Bob.  2001.  “Capturing Steam: Railroad Photographer J. J. Young” [1940s-50s Wheeling, W.Va.].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 27 (Summer): 10-23.

Withers, Bob.  2004.  “Grafton’s B&O Station: Revisiting a Railroad Treasure” [built 1911; railroad hub].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 30 (Fall): 10-15.

Withers, Bob.  2007.  “The Caboose Man: A Visit with Jim Mullins of Madison” [b. 1932; Chesapeake and Ohio Railway; builds small-scale replicas].  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 33, no. 4 (Winter): 16-21.

Withers, Bob.  2007.  The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in West Virginia [photo retrospective].  Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia.  127 pp.

Withers, Bob.  2008.  “The Cardinal and Its Rolling History Lesson.”  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 34, no. 4 (Winter): 24-31.  Amtrak train; New River Gorge.

Withers, Bob.  2008.  “The Duke of Prince: Ticket Agent Marvin Plumley.”  Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 34, no. 4 (Winter): 32-37.  Fayette County, New River Gorge; 40-year railroad career.

Withers, Bob.  2011.  West Virginia Railroads: Volume 3, Baltimore & Ohio.  Forest, Va.: TLC Publishing.  128 pp.  Photos; late steam and early diesel periods.  Contents: Introduction -- Cumberland Division -- Monongah Division -- Wheeling Division -- Pittsburgh Division -- Passenger Trains.

Wolensky, Kenneth C.  2000.  “A Working Class Haven in the Pocono Mountains: Unity House -- ILGWU” [International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union].  In Canal History and Technology Proceedings 19: 69-90.  Easton, Pa.: Canal History and Technology Press.

Wolensky, Kenneth C.  2005.  “The No. 9 Mine and Wash Shanty Museum, Lansford, Pennsylvania” [interprets anthracite coal mining culture].  Pennsylvania History 72, no. 4 (Autumn): 531-534.

Wolensky, Kenneth C., and Robert P. Wolensky.  1999.  “Min Matheson and the Wyoming Valley District of the ILGWU” [organizing; International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union].  In Keystone of Democracy: A History of Pennsylvania Workers, ed. H. Harris, P. Blatz, 265-269.  Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.

Wolensky, Kenneth C., Nicole H. Wolensky, and Robert P. Wolensky.  2002.  Fighting for the Union Label: The Women’s Garment Industry and the ILGWU in Pennsylvania [International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union; deindustrialization of the anthracite region; Wyoming Valley Oral History Project].  University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.  275 pp.

Wolensky, Robert P.  1997.  “Those Men Killed Up at Knox” [1959 mine disaster; Luzerne Co., Pa.].  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 14 (Winter): 17-19.

Wolensky, Robert P., and Joseph M. Keating.  2008.  Tragedy at Avondale: The Causes, Consequences, and Legacy of the Pennsylvania Anthracite Coal Industry’s Most Deadly Mining Disaster, September 6, 1869.  Easton, Pa.: Canal History and Technology Press.  191 pp.  Fire killed 108, mostly Welch; Pa.’s first major mining legislation followed; ethnic conflict with Irish.

Wolensky, Robert P., and Kenneth C. Wolensky.  1998.  “Disaster — or Murder? — in the Mines” [1959; 12 die when flooding Susquehanna River pours into Luzerne Co., Pa. mine].  Pennsylvania Heritage 24 (Spring): 4-11.

Wolensky, Robert P., Kenneth C. Wolensky, and Nicole H. Wolensky. 1999.  The Knox Mine Disaster, January 22, 1959: The Final Years of the Northern Anthracite Industry and the Effort to Rebuild a Regional Economy.  Harrisburg, Pa.: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.  164 pp.

Wolensky, Robert P., Kenneth C. Wolensky, and Nicole H. Wolensky.  2005.  Voices of the Knox Mine Disaster: Stories, Remembrances, and Reflections of the Anthracite Coal Industry’s Last Major Catastrophe, January 22, 1959.  Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.  268 pp.

Wolfe, Eugene.  [1993] 1999.  “No Christmas at Monongah: December 6, 1907” [nation’s worst mine disaster; 361 known dead, mostly eastern Euopean immigrants]. Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life 25 (Winter): 12-20.  Reprint, originally published vol. 19, no. 4.

Wolfe, Hugh, and Ed Wolfe.  2001.  Appalachian Coal Hauler: The Interstate Railroad’s Mine Runs and Coal Trains [photo-documentary].  Lynchburg, Va.: TLC Publishing.  160 pp.

Wolfe, Margaret Ripley.  1999.  “The Towns of King Coal” [company towns, 1890s to 1930s].  Register of the Kentucky Historical Society 97 (Spring): 189-201.

Wollman, David H., and Donald R. Inman.  1999.  Portraits in Steel: An Illustrated History of Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation [Pittsburgh].  Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press.  331 pp.

Woodrum, Robert H.  2005.  “The Rebirth of the UMWA and Racial Anxiety in Alabama, 1933-1942” [murder of black coal miner Jack Bloodworth, 1942].  Alabama Review 58, no. 4 (October): 243-281.

Woodrum, Robert H.  2009.  “‘Wearing Their Own Tombstones on Their Backs’”: Globalization and the Coalfields of Alabama and Columbia, 1970-2003.”  Chap. 5 in Migration and the Transformation of the Southern Workplace Since 1945, ed. R. Cassanello and C. Davis, 114-144.  Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

Woods, Brad R., and Jason S. Gordon.  2011.  “Mountaintop Removal and Job Creation: Exploring the Relationship Using Spatial Regression” [W.Va.].  Annals Of The Association Of American Geographers 101, no. 4 (July): 806-815.  Maps, tables.  Study area: ten southern W.Va. counties.

Woomer, Warren.  2003.  “Institute Goes to War: The Buna-S Synthetic Rubber Story” [W.Va.; WWII].  In Great Kanawha Valley Chemical Heritage, Symposium Proceedings, May 3, 2003, Institute, West Virginia, comp. Lee R. Maddex, 49-64.  Morgantown, W.Va.: Institute for the History of Technology and Industrial Archaeology.

Workers Champion Employee Ownership in Western North Carolina [Canton paper mill; Champion International].  Southern Exposure 27 (Summer): 11.

Workman, Michael E.  2000.  “The Kay Moor Mine, 1901-1962: A Case Study of Underground Mechanization in the Bituminous Coal Fields of Southern West Virginia.”  In Canal History and Technology Proceedings 19: 143-179.  Easton, Pa.: Canal History and Technology Press.

Workman, Michael E.  2009.  “‘Sadly in Need of Organization’: Labor Relations in the Fairmont Field, 1890-1918” [central-northern W.Va.; immigrant miners; unionization].  In Culture, Class, and Politics in Modern Appalachia: Essays in Honor of Ronald L. Lewis, ed. J. Egolf, K. Fones-Wolf, and L. Martin, 141-165.  Morgantown: West Virginia University Press.

Worley, Howard V.  2006.  West Side Belt Railroad [1800-1928; history, photos, maps].  Pittsburgh Railroad History, no. 3 [The Pittsburgh & West Virginia Railway and Wabash Pittsburgh Terminal Railway are the first two books in this series].  Saxonburg, Pa.: Howdy Productions.  159 pp.

Wright, G. Richard, and Kenneth H. Wheeler.  2009.  “New Men in the Old South: Joseph E. Brown and his Associates in Georgia’s Etowah Valley.”  Georgia Historical Quarterly 93, no. 4 (Winter): 363-387.  Civil War governor; iron furnaces; Cherokee frontier; slavery.

Wymard, Ellie.  2007.  Talking Steel Towns: The Men and Women of America’s Steel Valley [1892-1980s; interviews].  Pittsburgh, Pa.: Carnegie Mellon University Press.  96 pp.

Youngner, Rina C.  2006.  Industry in Art: Pittsburgh, 1812-1920 [historic illustrations: immigrants; steel; labor unrest and strikes].  Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.  188 pp.

Zehl, Valerie A.  1997.  "Who Are These Anthracite People?: Pennsylvania Anthracite Heritage Museum"  [Scranton, Pa.]. Pennsylvania Heritage 23 (Winter): 14-21.

Zeller, Tom, Jr.  2010.  “A Battle in Mining Country Pits Coal Against Wind.”  New York Times, 14 August, 1(BU).  2,928 words.  Rock Creek, W.Va.; Coal River Mountain and Massey Energy; map, graphics, video, audio, photos, blog.  http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/15/business/energy-environment/15coal.html?dbk.

Zeller, Tom, Jr.  2010.  “Energy Debate Yields Little Middle Ground.”  Green: A Blog About Energy and the Environment (blog), New York Times, 22 January.  778 words.  Debate between environmentalist Robert Kennedy, Jr., and Massey Energy CEO Don Blankenship over mountaintop removal mining and the future of coal.  http://green.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/01/22/energy-debate-yields-little-middle-ground/.

Zieger, Robert H.  1996.  “John L. Lewis and the Labor Movement, 1940-1960.”  In The United Mine Workers of America: A Model of Industrial Solidarity?, ed. J. Laslett, 151-166.  University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Zieger, Robert H.  1997.  “From Primordial Folk to Redundant Workers: Southern Textile Workers and Social Observers, 1920-1990.”  In Southern Labor in Transition, 1940-1995, ed. R. Zieger, 273-294.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Zipper, Carl.  2001.  “The Bush Energy Policy and Appalachia: Back to the Coal Mines?”  Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 18 (Winter): 15-19.